Active Hexose Correlated Compound, fermented mushroom extract dietary supplement, studies and popular articles not indexed on US National Library of Medicine (Pubmed)
Pescatore, F. Reversing Immunosenescence: The Key to Anti-Aging? Winter 2000. International Journal of Anti-Aging Medicine.
Sosin, A. Winning the Battle Against Cancer Therapy Side Effects. May 2001. Whole Foods.
Kenner, D. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome And Natural Killer Cells.
Ritz, B, Pescatore, F. AHCC, A Powerful Aid In Fighting Viruses and Infections. Total Health Magazine.
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Gulland, J. Mushroom-Derived Compound AHCC Boosts Immune System Function in Elderly. Fall 2008. Holistic Primary Care.
Peer-Reviewed Studies Published in Medical Journals
Integr Cancer Sci Therap, 2017 Vol 4(1).
Long-term administration of Active Hexose Correlated Compound as a dietary supplement to a patient after breast cancer surgery and chemotherapy: A case report
Koji Wakame1*, Jun Takanari2, Atsuya Sato2, Satomi Shirakawa2 and Ken-ichi
Pharmaceutical University School of Pharmacy, Japan2Science and Development Group, Amino Up Chemical Co. Ltd. , JapanAbstractActive Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is a dietary supplement obtained by long-term liquid culturing of shiitake mycelia. AHCC has various biological functions; in particular, its immune stimulating effect is well known. In recent years, the use of patients for treatment of cancer is increasing in the field of integrated medical care under the initiative of doctors and other paramedic experts. Practically, AHCC research from both animal models and human clinical trials has been reported, but an insufficient number of individual cases have been reported. Therefore, we report the case of a breast cancer patient who took AHCC (3 g/day) for 9 years following breast cancer surgery and chemotherapy treatment.Results indicated no cancer recurrence during the period of AHCC consumption and no rise of tumor markers (CEA, CA 15-3); further, good quality of life was maintained. Further, there were no reports of adverse reactions thought to be caused by AHCC. In sum, we report a case in which a patient ingested AHCC for almost a decade after breast cancer surgery, maintaining good health status.
Int J of Clin Med. 2011; 2:588-592.
Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Form of Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) in the Management of Head & Neck Cancer Patients.
Parida D, Wakame K, Nomura T.
Objectives: The Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC), is produced from mushroom mycelium and rich in al-pha glucans was administered to the cancer patients along with chemotherapy to see if it is having any beneficial effects on the final outcome in terms of reducing side effects of chemotherapy, maintaining the general condition and having effect on tumor control. Methods: Twenty five patients were administered AHCC along with conventional palliative chemotherapy regimen out of which sixteen patients received paclitaxel, and cisplatinum/carboplatin, nine patients received combination of cisplatin and 5-Flurouracil. All the patients were having advance stage (T3/T4) head and neck cancers. Thirteen patients were cancer of cheek, followed by cancer of tongue (4), oro-pharyngeal cancer (6) and cancer of naso-pharynx (2). Results: All the patients tolerated AHCC well with no added symptoms. Twenty patients re-ported that they are feeling stronger than before at the time of initiation of chemotherapy cycles. Almost all the patients reported to have better appetite after they started taking AHCC. Twelve patients who required blood transfusion before chemotherapy cycles, decrease in the rate of fall in hemoglobin was observed in these patients and only three patients required blood transfusion before subsequent chemotherapy cycles. In 22 patients definite reduction of chemotherapy side effects like nausea, vomiting, drop in total leucocytes count, loose motion/constipation etc. were observed, which reduced the hospital stay of these patients. Tumor regressed in 11 patients, 8 patients had stable disease and in rest of the patients, the disease progressed. Conclusions: AHCC up to 3 g is safe to administer and definitely helps cancer patients in reducing side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs, getting a sense of wellbeing and improved intake maintains general condition as well as prepare them to continue and tolerate further cycles in a better way.
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Nat Med J. 2009 Sept; 1(1):1-6.
Improved Survival of Patients with Gastric Cancer or Colon Cancer when treated with Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC): Effect of AHCC on digestive system cancer.
Background/Aim: Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is a functional food extracted from Basidiomycete mushrooms. AHCC has demonstrated immune stimulating activity in vitro and in vivo and may be a potent biological response modifier in cancer therapy. AHCC has been shown to improve the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. We investigated the effect of AHCC on the survival rate of patients with gastric cancer or colon cancer. Study Design: From April 1995 to April 2002 we conducted a prospective cohort study. Methods: 245 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of gastric or colon cancer were recruited to receive oral AHCC as a postoperative adjunctive therapy in conjunction with standard chemotherapy. Patients diagnosed with Stage I, II or III gastric or colon cancer received 3.0g/day oral AHCC in divided doses (1g AHCC three times per day). Patients diagnosed with Stage IV gastric or colon cancer received 6.0 g/day oral AHCC in divided doses (2g AHCC three times per day). The cumulative survival rates for gastric and colon cancer patients were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Results: AHCC as a functional food improved the cumulative five-year survival rates of Stage IA to Stage IIIA gastric cancer (n = 83) and Stage II to Stage III colon cancer (n = 52) patients compared to other institutions. Conclusion: AHCC may improve survival in patients with early stage gastric cancer or colon cancer.
Int J Integr Oncol. 2009 Sept; 3(2):12-16.
Retrospective study in breast cancer patients supplemented with AHCC.
Matsui Y, Kamiyama Y.
OBJECTIVE This retrospective study was conducted in terms of the prognosis of advanced breast cancer patients supplemented with Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC). METHODS Out of 47 enrolled subjects, Stage I, II, III and IV were 5, 13, 10 and 19 cases respectively. Study period was six years from 1996 to 2002, and all subjects received AHCC administration in our department. RESULTS The prognosis of AHCC group was worse in comparison to that of the national counting in Stage I, II and III although a statistical work was impossible. AHCC supplementation improved the prognosis in Stage IV as compared to the national counting. CONCLUSION The results suggested that AHCC might contribute to improving the prognosis in Stage IV breast cancer patients although the improvement remains to be further elucidated in Stage I, II and III.
Biotherapy. 2002 Nov; 16 (6):560-564.
The Hematoimmunologic Effect of AHCC for Korean Patients with Various Cancers.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) Is an extract obtained from several kinds of mushroom (basidiomycetes) which are cultured in a liquid medium. This study attempted to assess the hematologic change and the cellular immunity effect of AHCC in 12 different cancer patients. The dosage of AHCC was 3 to 6 g per day orally. Peripheral blood examination, including total leukocytes, peripheral lymphocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, was performed before initiation of AHCC administration and then every 3 months for a total of 3 times. Multiplying the lymphocyte % in the leukocyte count yielded the number of lymphocytes. Assessment of Immune parameters, such as CD4, CD8, CD4:CD8 ratio, and natural killer cells, was done before intake of AHCC and then every 3 months for 2 times after intake. The chemotherapy protocol was conducted as usual, and it was not related to the administration of AHCC. There was no clear change In white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin, hematocrit, or thrombocyte number after taking AHCC, even though the patients were undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The ratio of natural killer cells to total lymphocytes, which was 21.67% before taking AHCC, increased to 26.21% and 26.0% 3 and 6 months after taking AHCC, respectively. However, the ratio of natural killer cells to total lymphocytes was in the normal range in some patients, so more large-scale randomized studies are required. This study suggests that AHCC can be used for the prevention of bone marrow depression from chemotherapy. Also, from the hematoimmunologic point of view, AHCC treatment seems to be safe and good for Korean cancer patients, acting as a biological response modifier.
No Link Available
Int J Immunother. 1995; XI(1):23-28.
Immunomodulatory and Anticancer Effects of Active Hemicellulose Compound (AHCC).
Ghoneum M, Wimbly M, Salem F, McKlain A, Aitallah N, Gill.G.
Summary: The effects of therapy with active hemicellulose compound (AHCC) were examined in 11 cancer patients. AHCC is a myecelic extract of basidiomycota originating from hybrid mushrooms. Significant anticancer activity by AHCC was observed with advanced malignancies in patients given 3 g of AHCC daily. The percentages of patients with complete remission were as follows: i) prostatic, 2/3 (66%), PSA level <02; ii) ovarian, 2/3, CA-125 <35; iii) multiple myeloma, 1/2 (50%), BJP <5; (iv) breast, 1/3 complete remission and 2 partial. Two mechanisms by which AHCC exerts Its effect were investigated. The first was natural killer (NK) immunomodulation. Patients demonstrated a low base level of NK activity (18.8%), which was significantly enhanced by AHCC at 2 weeks (2.5 fold), and was maintained at a high level. The second was direct anticancer properties. In vitro studies showed that AHCC possesses suppressive effects on tumour cell growth. AHCC (1 mg/ml) cultured with K562 and Raji tumour cells caused 21% and 43% decrease In cell counts, respectively, as compared to control untreated cells. It is concluded that the high augmentory effect of AHCC and the absence of notable side effects make AHCC a promising immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer patients.
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2nd Meeting of the Society for Natural Immunity, Taormina, Italy May 1994. Drew Univ of Med and Sci, Dept of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Los Angeles, CA USA.
Immunomodulation by Active Hemicellulose Compound (AHCC) in 17 Cancer Patients.
The present study was designed to examine the immunomodulatory function of active hemicellulose compound (AHCC). AHCC is an extract of Mycelia basidiomycota which was originated by hybridization of several types of mushrooms. Seventeen cancer patients with different advanced malignancies participated in the study: ovarian carcinoma (3), multiple myeloma (2), stomach (2), breast (5), lung (2), rhabdomyosarcoma (1) and prostate (2). Patients received AHCC 3g/day orally for 2-6 months. NK cell activity was examined by 4-hour Cr release assay against sensitive K562 and resistant Raji tumor cells. Results showed significant enhancement of NK activity against K562 as early as 2 weeks (2 to 3 fold of baseline). Activity was further increased at subsequent time periods up to 6 months post treatment with AHCC. NK activation was also detected against Raji cells, but at later stages, i.e. 1-2 months (2 to 10 fold). AHCC appears to activate NK cells by increasing their binding capacity to tumor cell targets (2 fold), and also by increasing NK cell granularity as examined microscopically, in cytospin preparation and biochemically. On the other hand, flow cytometry analysis showed no significant change in the percentage of NK cells (CD3-, CD16+/CD56+). We conclude that AHCC is a potent immunomodulator and may be useful in immunotherapy of cancer.
Nat Med J. 2011 Jan; 3(1):3-7.
Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) and Immune Outcomes in Humans: A Review.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is a fermented mushroom extract that is commercially available and promoted for immune support. This review focuses on safety and efficacy results from human clinical trials that have included subjects with a variety of cancers, as well as healthy populations. Animal data are also briefly discussed in the context of recent human data, with an emphasis on the possible applications of AHCC in promoting resistance to influenza virus infection. Available data suggest that AHCC supplementation clearly affects immune outcomes and immune cell populations—especially natural killer cell activity. Additional human studies are needed, as well as studies to explore the mechanistic rationale for these reported effects.
Inter J of Clin Med. 2012; 3:361-367.
Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) Alleviates Gemcitabine-Induced Hematological Toxicity in Non-Tumor-Bearing Mice.
Nakamoto D, Shigama K, Nishioka H, Fujii H.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is known as a dietary supplement derived from an extract of a basidiomycete mushroom. The present study was conducted to evaluate the role of AHCC in alleviating the side effects, particularly hematological toxicity, in non-tumor-bearing mice receiving monotherapy with gemcitabine (GEM). The results from the GEM treatment groups with and without AHCC administration were compared to control group that received vehicle alone. The GEM alone treatment reduced peripheral leukocytes and hemoglobin, and bone marrow cell viability in spite of no influence on body weight, food consumption, and renal and hepatic parameters. Supplementation with AHCC significantly alleviated these side effects. The colony forming assay of bone marrow cells revealed that AHCC improved reduction of colony forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) related to GEM administration. However, when mRNA expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and erythropoietin (EPO) was examined using a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), AHCC showed no effect for the mRNA levels of their hematopoietic growth factors. These results support the concept that AHCC can be beneficial for cancer patients with GEM treatment through alleviating the hematotoxicity.
Jap J Compl Alt Med. 2007; 2:37-40.
Nutritional Food Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) Enhances Resistance against Bird Flu.
Fujii H, Nishioka H, Wakame K, Sun B.
AHCC is a nutritional food that has been broadly adopted in Japan as well as other countries. Several laboratories have demonstrated that AHCC has immune modulating effect. Increasing immunity against bird flu virus, H5N1, may help to prevent the next pandemic. We hypothesize that uptaking AHCC improve immunity against infection with this virus. Administration of AHCC for 7 days effectively improved survival rate by 30% and this effect can last for 3 to 4 weeks. Our results indicate a potential role of AHCC in helping to build up immunity for preventing the pandemic of bird flu.
Dokkyo J Med Sci 2001; 28(2-3):745-752.
Preventive Effects of Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) on Oxidative Stress Induced by Ferric Nitrilotriacetate in the Rat.
Wang S, lchimwa K, Wakame K.
Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe -NTA) is a strong oxidant, which generates highly active hydroxyl radical and causes injuries of various organs including the kidney and liver. The formation of 8-hydroxy-2′ deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) adducts in the renal DNA is one of the earliest events after treatment with Fe-NTA. Since Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC), an extract of fungi, has been shown to act as an antioxidant, its protective effect on the oxidative stress induced by Fe-NTA was examined in the present study. AHCC at 3% in drinking water was given to male Wister rats for 1 week, then Fe-NTA was injected intraperitoneally. At 3 h after the treatment with Fe-NTA, levels of 8-OHdG in the bladder urine, creatinine in the serum, thymic apoptosis, serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases were significantly increased. All of these increases were restored to normal by the AHCC pretreatment. These results suggest that AHCC is potent in restoring the disorders of various organs induced by oxidative stress.
Dokkyo J Med Sci 2001; 28(I):559-565.
Beneficial Effects of Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) on Immobilization Stress in the Rat.
Wang S, Wakame K, Igarashi Y, Kosuna K, Matsuzaki S
Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC™), an extract from several basidiomycetes, has been known as a biological response modifier (BRM) in humans as well as in animals. In the present study, AHCC was tested for its ability to modulate the hormonal responses to immobilization stress in the rat. AHCC at 3% in drinking water was given to male Wistar rats for one week, then rats were exposed to immobilization for 1 h. At 1 h after immobilization, the serum levels of corticosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and glucose were increased significantly. Except for the corticosterone levels, all of these changes were restored to control levels by the AHCC pretreatment These results suggest that AHCC can protect various effects induced by immobilization by attenuating the sympathetic nerve activity.
Biomedical Research. 1999; 20(3):145-152.
Protective Effects of Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) on the Onset of Diabetes Induced by Streptozotocin in the Rat.
Effects of Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) on the onset of diabetes were studied in rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ). AHCC was given to male rats at 4% in drinking water. A single i.v. injection of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in an increase in blood glucose levels, a decrease in serum insulin levels, suppression of body weight gain. and an increase in serum GOT and OPT activities and serum levels of lipid peroxides. Treatment of AHCC restored these parameters to normal. Insulin immunoreactive β-cells in Langerhans islets reduced in number after treatment with STZ, while insulin immunoreactivity in the islets was normalized when AHCC was administered to STZ-treated rats. These results show that AHCC treatment is effective on the prevention of diabetes onset induced by STZ.
Nat Med. 1997; 51(4):310-315.
Preventive Effects of AHCC on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Liver Injury in Mice.
Sun B, Wakame K. Mukoda T, Toyoshima A, Kanazawa T, Kosuna K.
In the natural world, it is said that approximately 5,900 genera, 6,400 kinds of mycelia inhabit [the earth]. Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum, reishi), zhuling (Polyporus umbellatus, chorei) are popular Chinese traditional medicine derived from fungi of basidiomycetes family. Those mycelia are identified to contain various physiologically active substances, such as polysaccharide with b-1, 3-glucan structure. It has been reported its activities; anti-tumor activity, accommodation activity on immune system, hypoglycemic activity, etc. Recent advance of culturing techniques has enabled artificial culture of basidiomycetes. Active Hexose Correlated Compounds (AHCC; from Amino Up Chemical Co., Ltd.) is a mixture containing polysaccharide obtained by culturing in a liquid culture tank followed by enzyme reactions and hot water extraction. AHCC has been observed and reported its bioactivity as Biological Response Modifiers (BRM) or nonspecific immunoreactive activator. Especially in clinical studies, the effects of AHCC have been reported; improvement of adult diseases such as diabetes or hepatic disease, cancer cell atrophy and inhibition of metastases in tumor patients, the survival time prolongation, reducing side effects caused by chemotherapy, etc. Although there are many clinical studies reported, actual pharmacological mechanism is known only a little. To investigate its pharmacological mechanism as .the first step, we prepared an acute carbon tetrachloride hepatitis model in mice-which symptom is said to be similar to drug liver injury in human. This is the report of the investigation of the effect of AHCC administered per os (p.o.) on liver function change and drug metabolizing enzymes in liver.
Inter J of Appl Res in Nat Prod. 2011 Sept-Oct; 4(3):6-14.
Evaluation of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for treatment of ovarian cancer.
Hunter RJ, Fujii H, Wakame K, Gaikwad A, Wolf JK, Smith JA.
Summary: The objective was to define the mechanism of the growth inhibition of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) alone and evaluate its activity in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD). Scientific Methods: In vitro growth inhibition assays were completed with AHCC alone and in combination with PLD in panel of human cancer cell lines and findings confirmed in vivo in an ovarian cancer xenograft mouse model. AHCC mechanism of action was evaluated with immunoblotting and flow cytometry studies. Major Findings: The in vitro growth inhibition assays demonstrated additive activity when AHCC is co-administered with PLD. The combination of AHCC with PLD demonstrated a 64.1% reduction in tumor growth compared to the untreated group (p value = 0.03) and a 31.2% improvement in tumor response with combination regimen compared to PLD alone. No difference in toxicity was observed in the control or treatment groups. An increased expression of Bcl-2 was observed and induction of apoptosis confirmed in presence of AHCC. Conclusions: There is potential improvement in PLD activity when co-administered with AHCC and decrease side effects of PLD. A clinical study to evaluate of the combination of AHCC plus PLD in the treatment of ovarian cancer is being pursued. Industrial Relevance: This study presents an example of the successful integration of a well-known herbal supplement, AHCC, with traditional western medicine cytotoxic agent, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, for the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer. In addition to providing evidence of the efficacy of AHCC, the mechanism of improved activity was also investigated. Using a traditional approach this study provides pre-clinical data to support the benefits previously observed and reported in the clinical setting and supports future endeavors to integrate AHCC into standard of care to be given with chemotherapy. These finding are particularly beneficial in the treatment of recurrent cancer when maintaining a good quality of life during chemotherapy is a priority and allows patients to have a natural, nutritional approach to preventing and managing chemotherapy adverse effects.