Active Hexose Correlated Compound, fermented mushroom extract dietary supplement, published studies indexed via the US National Library of Medicine (Pubmed)
Articles in 4 categories, in publication date order,
- Clinical trials and results in human subjects
- Review articles, including results of cell line, animal and human studies
- Studies conducted in animal subjects
- Studies conducted in cell lines
Clinical trials and results in human subjects
Front Oncol. 2019 Mar 20;9:173. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2019.00173. eCollection 2019.
From Bench to Bedside: Evaluation of AHCC Supplementation to Modulate the Host Immunity to Clear High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections.
Smith JA1,2, Mathew L1, Gaikwad A1, Rech B3, Burney MN1, Faro JP4, Lucci JA 3rd1,2, Bai Y5, Olsen RJ6, Byrd TT1.
Objective: There is currently no effective medicine or supplement for clearance of high risk- human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections. We have taken a systematic approach evaluating the potential use of AHCC supplementation to support clearance of HR-HPV infections. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate AHCC supplementation to modulation of the host immune system to clear HR-HPV infections from bench to bedside. Methods: Cervical cancer cells, CaSki (HPV16+), HeLa(HPV18+), SiHa(HPV16/18+), and C-33A(HPV–), were treated in vitro with AHCC 0.42 mg/mL daily x7 days then observed x7 days with daily sample collection. A confirmatory study in cervical cancer mouse models, SiHa(HPV16/18+) and C-33A(HPV–), was conducted: mice were divided into three groups per cell line then dosed with AHCC 50 mg/kg/d (N = 10), or vehicle alone (N = 10), or no supplementation (N = 10) for a total of 90 days followed by 30 days of observation. Tumors were measured 3x/week and blood samples collected bi-weekly to evaluate interferon (IFN) alpha(α), beta(β), and gamma(γ) and immunoglobulin G(IgG) by immunoassays. Tumors were evaluated for HR-HPV expression by PCR. Two pilot studies of 10 patients each were conducted in women with confirmed persistent HR-HPV+ infections. The 1st study evaluated AHCC 3g from 5 weeks up to 6 months and 2nd study evaluated AHCC 1g < 8 months. HR-HPV DNA status and the immune panel were monitored at each visit. Results: HR–HPV clearance was observed in vitro and confirmed in the animal studies as a durable response. Four of six (66.7%) patients had confirmed HR-HPV clearance after 3-6 months of AHCC 3g. Similarly, 4 of 9 (44%) patients had confirmed HR-HPV clearance after 7 months of AHCC 1g. Suppression of IFNβ <25 pg/mL was observed in those clearing the HR-HPV infection. Conclusion: Pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated durable clearance of HR-HPV infections. The preliminary data from the two pilot studies suggested that AHCC supplementation supports the host immune system for successful clearance of HR-HPV infections. A confirmatory phase II randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study is ongoing.
KEYWORDS: AHCC; HPV; cervical cancer; nutritional supplementation; prevention
J Evid Based Integr Med. 2018 Jan-Dec;23:2156587218756511.
Effects of AHCC® on Immune and Stress Responses in Healthy Individuals.
Takanari J1, Sato A1, Waki H2, Miyazaki S2,3, Uebaba K2,3, Hisajima T2,3.
AHCC® is a functional food from the basidiomycete Lentinula edodes. We evaluated the effects of AHCC® on subjects under different kinds of stress and at rest. Physical stress was imposed using an active standing test, known as Schellong's test. Sympathetic nervous activity in the standing position was significantly greater in AHCC®-treated subjects than in a placebo group. In contrast, AHCC® significantly increased parasympathetic nervous activity at rest. Under mental stress, AHCC® increased sympathetic nervous activity, with no difference in the parasympathetic nervous system. In subjects with chronic mental stress, self-reported "initiation and maintenance of sleep" was significantly greater in the AHCC®-intake period than in the placebo intake period, and natural killer cell activity also increased after AHCC® intake, suggesting a possible mechanism of action of AHCC®. Our findings indicate that AHCC® is potentially effective in stress management and may be useful in the treatment of depression.
KEYWORDS: AHCC®; immune function; stress response
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Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017 Mar 1;18(3):633-638.
The Effects of Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) on Levels of CD4+ and CD8+ in Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer or Peritoneal Cancer Receiving Platinum Based Chemotherapy
Suknikhom W1, Lertkhachonsuk R, Manchana T.
Adjuvant chemotherapy is a required treatment for most patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) or peritoneal cancer. However, it has many adverse events which may affect oncologic outcomes. Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) has been reported to be an immunoenhancer to decrease adverse events of chemotherapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Patients were randomized and allocated to receive either AHCC three grams/day (500mg/ capsule) or placebo. These drugs were administrated as two capsules orally three times a day throughout six cycles of chemotherapy. The primary outcome was a change of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lymphocytes in peripheral blood samples from baseline to completion of chemotherapy. Secondary outcomes were rate of bone marrow suppression, adverse events and quality of life (QOL) as assessed by Thai version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G).
Study outcomes were analyzed in 28 patients, 14 patients in each group. Changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lymphocytes levels were not significantly different between AHCC and placebo group; 43.5/ul (-237.5, 143.3) versus -69.5 /ul (-223.8, 165) for CD4+ level, p=0.61 and 49.5.0 /ul (-80, 153.3) versus 4.0 /ul (-173, 62.5) for CD8+ level, p=0.19. However, CD8+ levels were significantly higher in the AHCC group at the sixth cycle of chemotherapy; 392.5.0 /ul (310.8, 598) versus 259.5 /ul (170.5, 462.3), p=0.03. There was no difference in bone marrow suppression and QOL between the two groups. Adverse events in terms of nausea and vomiting significantly decreased but muscle pain significantly increased in the AHCC group.
Changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lymphocytes from baseline were not significantly increased in AHCC group. However, CD8+T cell lymphocytes levels were significantly higher in the AHCC group at the sixth cycle of chemotherapy.
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KEYWORDS: Active hexose correlated compound; chemotherapy; epithelial ovarian cancer; immunoenhancer
Nutr Cancer. 2016;68(2):234-40. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2016.1134597. Epub 2016 Feb 4.
Alleviating Effect of Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) on Chemotherapy-Related Adverse Events in Patients with Unresectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
Yanagimoto H1, Satoi S1, Yamamoto T1, Hirooka S1, Yamaki S1, Kotsuka M1, Ryota H1, Michiura T1, Inoue K1, Matsui Y1, Tsuta K2, Kon M1.
The present study was conducted to determine whether active hexose correlated compound(AHCC), a functional food extracted from cultured basidiomycetes, possesses the potential to attenuate adverse events in unresectable pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients receiving chemotherapy. Unresectable PDAC patients receiving gemcitabine treatment (GEM) as the first-line chemotherapy were prospectively divided into 2 groups according to AHCC intake (AHCC group, n = 35) or not (control group, n = 40). The patients in the AHCC group ingested 6.0 g of AHCC for 2 mo. Hematological and nonhematological toxicity was compared between the AHCC and control groups. The C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation and albumin decline of the AHCC group were significantly suppressed as compared to the control group during the GEM administration (P = 0.0012, P = 0.0007). Patients in the AHCC group had less frequency of taste disorder caused by GEM (17% vs. 56%, P = 0.0007). Frequency of grade 3 in the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) during chemotherapy was found significantly less in the AHCC group (14%) than the control group (53%, P = 0.0005). AHCC intake can be effective in reducing the adverse events associated with chemotherapy and may contribute to maintaining the QOL of patients with PDAC during GEM administration.
J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2015 Jan;20(1):28-34. doi: 10.1177/2156587214555573. Epub 2014 Nov 4.
Effects of active hexose correlated compound on the seasonal variations of immune competence in healthy subjects.
Takanari J1, Hirayama Y1, Homma K1, Miura T1, Nishioka H1, Maeda T2.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of active hexose correlated compound intake on the immune competence in healthy volunteers. Thirty-four subjects were randomized to receive placebo or active hexose correlated compound at 1.0 g/d for 4 weeks in early winter. Natural killer cell activity was significantly increased in both groups during the study period, the natural killer cell number, however, was not altered in the active hexose correlated compoundgroup while placebo group showed remarkable decline. In addition, the score of immunological vigor, an index of total immune competence, was maintained in the active hexose correlated compound group although that of placebo group lowered during the test period. These results suggested that the continuous active hexose correlated compound intake maintained the immune competence against the seasonal change.
© The Author(s) 2014.
KEYWORDS: active hexose correlated compound; immunity; natural killer cell; score of immunological vigor; seasonal alteration
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(3):377-82. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2014.884232. Epub 2014 Mar 10.
Reduction of adverse effects by a mushroom product, active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) in patients with advanced cancer during chemotherapy–the significance of the levels of HHV-6 DNA in saliva as a surrogate biomarker during chemotherapy.
Ito T1, Urushima H, Sakaue M, Yukawa S, Honda H, Hirai K, Igura T, Hayashi N, Maeda K, Kitagawa T, Kondo K.
Chemotherapy improves the outcome of cancer treatment, but patients are sometimes forced to discontinue chemotherapy or drop out of a clinical trial due to adverse effects, such as gastrointestinal disturbances and suppression of bone marrow function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a mushroom product, active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), on chemotherapy-induced adverse effects and quality of life (QOL) in patients with cancer. Twenty-four patients with cancer received their first cycle of chemotherapy without AHCC and then received their second cycle with AHCC. During chemotherapy, we weekly evaluated adverse effects and QOL via a blood test, EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire, and DNA levels of herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6) in saliva. The DNA levels of HHV-6 were significantly increased after chemotherapy. Interestingly, administration of AHCC significantly decreased the levels of HHV-6 in saliva during chemotherapy and improved not only QOL scores in the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire but also hematotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. These findings suggest that salivary HHV-6 levels may be a good biomarker of QOL in patients during chemotherapy, and that AHCC may have a beneficial effect on chemotherapy-associated adverse effects and QOL in patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2014;60(5):348-56. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.60.348.
Effect of Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) in alcohol-induced liver enzyme elevation.
To investigate the effects of Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) supplementation and the mechanism action of AHCC in patients with alcohol-induced mildly elevated liver enzyme levels, participants were randomly allocated to the placebo, 1 g AHCC, or 3 g AHCC group and took the supplement for 12 wk. Subjects visited the hospital for clinical and biochemical measurements, for examination of adverse events, to return unused supplements, and to obtain their next supplements. Biochemical tests including liver enzymes, a questionnaire survey, and anthropometric measurements were collected at baseline and every 4 wk thereafter. Adherence and adverse events were evaluated. After 12 wk of supplementation, the percentage change in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was significantly different between the placebo (4.02±59.07%) and both AHCC groups (1 g AHCC: 223.89±20.59%, 3 g AHCC: 224.09±30.73%) (p=0.04). Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (p<0.05) and interleukin-1β (p<0.01) were significantly lower, while those of adiponectin were higher in both AHCC groups than in the placebo group (p<0.01). AHCC supplementation for 12 wk may improve the levels of liver enzymes and circulating pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients with alcohol-induced liver enzyme elevation with mildly elevated liver enzyme levels.
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J Altern Complement Med. 2013 Nov;19(11):905-10. doi: 10.1089/acm.2012.0914. Epub 2013 Jul 5.
Effect of active hexose-correlated compound in women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: a retrospective study.
Hangai S1, Iwase S, Kawaguchi T, Kogure Y, Miyaji T, Matsunaga T, Nagumo Y, Yamaguchi T.
Anthracyclines and taxanes are often used as first-line chemotherapy treatments in patients with breast cancer. There are, however, significant toxicity and side effects associated with these therapies. Previous studies have demonstrated that active hexose-correlated compound (AHCC) reduces such side effects. The present study explored the beneficial effects of AHCC on adverse events in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.
Forty-one women who were treated with anthracyclines and taxanes at Nagumo Clinic in Tokyo from October 2004 to March 2011 were selected for this study.
We compared the occurrence of adverse events in patients who received AHCC with those who did not receive AHCC. Using Fisher's exact tests, we also compared the worst-grade adverse events in each treatment cycle. Generalized estimating equations were employed to compare longitudinal changes, and the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, in the two groups was analyzed using Student's t-test.
We found that, compared to the control group, the AHCC group had significantly fewer neutrophil-related events (odds ratio, 0.30; p=0.016), significantly lower use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and a higher (although not significant) rate of adverse events associated with γ-glutamyl transpeptidase.
AHCC has the potential to reduce the severity of neutropenia induced by breast cancer chemotherapy and the use of G-CSF during chemotherapy.
Nutr Res. 2013 Jan;33(1):12-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2012.11.001. Epub 2012 Dec 4.
Short-term supplementation with active hexose correlated compound improves the antibody response to influenza B vaccine.
Roman BE1, Beli E, Duriancik DM, Gardner EM.
Administration of bioactive nutritional supplements near or at the time of immunization has been a recent approach to stimulate human immune response to vaccination. Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), a mushroom extract, has been shown to protect mice against lethal primary influenza infection. Moreover, when AHCC was administered pre-vaccination in mice, they showed improved protection from lethal avian flu infection when compared to mice vaccinated alone. In this study, we hypothesized that AHCC will also improve the immune responses of healthy individuals to influenza vaccine. A randomized controlled study was performed with 30 healthy adults to evaluate the effects of AHCC supplementation on the immune response to the 2009-2010 seasonal influenza vaccine. Blood was drawn pre-vaccination and 3 wk post-vaccination. Immediately post-vaccination, the AHCC group began supplementation with AHCC (3 g/d). Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subpopulations revealed that AHCC supplementation increased NKT cells (P < .1), and CD8 T cells (P < .05) post-vaccination compared to controls. Analysis of antibody production 3 weeks post-vaccination revealed that AHCC supplementation significantly improved protective antibody titers to influenza B, while the improvement was not significant in the control group. Overall, our study showed that AHCC supplementation improved some lymphocyte percentages and influenza B antibody titers over the control. Future studies are required to determine the kinetics of AHCC supplementation to improve the overall response to influenza vaccination.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hum Immunol. 2010 Dec;71(12):1187-90. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2010.08.006. Epub 2010 Aug 21.
Effects of active hexose correlated compound on frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing interferon-γ and/or tumor necrosis factor-α in healthy adults.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is a natural compound with the potential to be used as an immunoenhancer in cases in which the immune system is compromised. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of this compound on the immune function of healthy adults aged 50 years or more. The production of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells was measured by flow cytometry in peripheral blood obtained from subjects at different time points after AHCC intake. The frequency of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells producing IFN-γ alone, TNF-α alone, or both increased during AHCC intake compared with baseline values. Furthermore, the frequency of such cells remained high even 30 days after discontinuing AHCC. Overall, these findings suggest that AHCC enhances CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell immune responses in healthy elderly persons taking at least 30 days to obtain such effect, which remained up to 30 days after discontinuing treatment with this compound.
Copyright © 2010 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2010 Oct;40(10):967-72. doi: 10.1093/jjco/hyq081. Epub 2010 Jun 3.
Dietary administration of mushroom mycelium extracts in patients with early stage prostate cancers managed expectantly: a phase II study.
Sumiyoshi Y1, Hashine K, Kakehi Y, Yoshimura K, Satou T, Kuruma H, Namiki S, Shinohara N.
To assess the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements in patients with early stage prostate cancers who are managed expectantly.
Seventy-four patients with early prostate cancer, who were treated with expectant management, enrolled in the study. A mushroom mycelium extract was given at a dose of 4.5 g/day for 6 months. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients in which the prostate specific antigen level decreased by 50% or more following treatment. The adverse events, change of prostate specific antigen value and quality of life were also evaluated.
In only one of 74 patients (1.4%), the prostate specific antigen value decreased more than 50%. Grade 2 diarrhea and grade 1 itching were observed in one patient, and patient ingestion compliance was maintained near 100%. The alternation of prostate specific antigen values was stable before and after treatment. In subjects with strong anxiety prior to supplement ingestion, these feelings were significantly alleviated (state anxiety, P = 0.0018; trait anxiety, P = 0.0099).
In this phase II study of early prostate cancer patients who were managed expectantly, a mushroom mycelium extract was an ineffective treatment for reducing 50% or more the patient prostate specific antigen values.
Anticancer Drugs. 2009 Mar;20(3):215-6. doi: 10.1097/CAD.0b013e3283163c26.
Dramatic prostate-specific antigen response with activated hemicellulose compound in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is an incurable disease with limited treatment options. Herbal supplements are unconventional treatments for a variety of diseases. Active hemicellulose compound (AHCC) is a Japanese supplement discovered by hybridizing several mushrooms used in traditional healing for the purpose of maintaining ‘super immunity'. We report on a 66-year-old gentleman with CRPC with an excellent serologic response to AHCC. This case hypothesizes that AHCC may have potential activity against CRPC.
Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(5):643-51. doi: 10.1080/01635580801993280.
Immunological effect of active hexose correlated compound(AHCC) in healthy volunteers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Terakawa N1, Matsui Y, Satoi S, Yanagimoto H, Takahashi K, Yamamoto T, Yamao J, Takai S, Kwon AH, Kamiyama Y.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of active hexose correlated compound(AHCC) intake on immune responses by investigating the number and function of circulating dendritic cells (DCs) in healthy volunteers. Twenty-one healthy volunteers were randomized to receive placebo or AHCC at 3.0 g/day for 4 wk. The number of circulating cluster of differentiation (CD)11c(+) DCs (DC1) and CD11c(-) DCs (DC2) were measured. Allogeneic mixed-leukocyte reaction (MLR) was performed. Natural killer (NK) cell activity and the proliferative response of T lymphocytes toward mitogen (phytohemagglutinin [PHA]) were measured. We also measured cytokine production stimulated by lipopolysaccharide [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon gamma-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha). The AHCC group (n = 10) after AHCC intake had a significantly higher number of total DCs compared to that at baseline and values from control subjects (n = 11). The number of DC1s in the AHCC group after intake was significantly higher than at baseline. DC2s in the AHCC group were significantly increased in comparison with controls. The MLR in the AHCC group was significantly increased compared to controls. No significant differences in PHA, NK cell activity, and cytokine production were found between groups. AHCC intake resulted in the increased number of DCs and function of DC1s, which have a role in specific immunity.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2007 Dec;53(6):536-9.
A Phase I study of the safety of the nutritional supplement, active hexose correlated compound, AHCC, in healthy volunteers.
Spierings EL1, Fujii H, Sun B, Walshe T.
Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is an extract of Lentinula edodes of the basidiomycete family of fungi rich in alpha glucans. AHCC has been used for many years as a dietary supplement to enhance the immune system and in clinical trials as an adjunctive treatment in Hepatocellular cancer. This multiple dose, Phase I trial, using FDA guidelines, directly investigates the clinical safety and tolerability of AHCC in healthy subjects. Its safety has been based previously on anecdotal reports and its use in clinical practice. Twenty-six healthy male or female subjects between the ages of 18 and 61 were recruited from the community and gave their consent to participate in the trial. The subjects were given 9 g of AHCC (150 mL of the currently available liquid AHCC) PO daily for 14 d. Laboratory data was obtained at baseline and after 14 d of exposure to AHCC and adverse events were monitored by a non-directed review of systems questionnaire three times during the trial. At each visit the vital signs and adverse events were recorded. Two subjects (7%) dropped out because of nausea and intolerance of the liquid. Adverse effects of nausea, diarrhea, bloating, headache, fatigue, and foot cramps occurred in a total of 6 subjects (20%) but were mild and transient. There were no laboratory abnormalities. When used in high dose in healthy subjects, AHCC causes no significant abnormality in laboratory parameters. The adverse effects of 9 g of liquid AHCC per day, a higher dose than used in routine clinical applications, are minimal and the dose was tolerated by 85% of the subjects.
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Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2006 Mar;24(1):33-45.
Prognostic improvement of patients with advanced liver cancer after active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) treatment.
Cowawintaweewat S1, Manoromana S, Sriplung H, Khuhaprema T, Tongtawe P, Tapchaisri P, Chaicumpa W.
Most patients with liver cancer are diagnosed when they are not suitable for resection. Although some palliative approaches can be applied to these patients, the overall survival rate remains unsatisfactory. Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), a newly developed functional food, has been shown to act as a potent biological response modifier in in vitro experiments. Recently, AHCC was found to improve the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients following surgical treatment. We investigated whether AHCC could prolong survival and improve the prognosis of patients with advanced liver cancer. A prospective cohort study was performed with 44 patients with histologically confirmed liver cancer. All of the patients underwent supportive care. Survival time, quality of life, clinical and immunological parameters related to liver function, cellular immunity, and patient status were determined. Of the 44 patients, 34 and 10 received AHCC and placebo (control) orally, respectively. Patients in the AHCC treated-group had a significantly prolonged survival when compared to the control group by Mann-Whitney test (95% CI, p = 0.000). Quality of life in terms of mental stability, general physical health status, and ability to have normal activities were significantly improved after 3 months of AHCC treatment when tested using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (on one-sided test, p = 0.028, 0.037, and 0.040, respectively). The apparent different clinical parameters between the two groups were the levels of albumin and percentage of lymphocytes with p-values of 0.000 and 0.026 at 1 and 2 months after treatment, respectively. Unlike the control patients, AHCC treated-patients with longer survival time had the tendency of better outcomes since the levels of AST and ALT had not increased rapidly from their baselines at follow-up. In addition, the levels of total IL-12 and neopterin were slightly increased in AHCC treated-patients. This study suggests that AHCC intake could prolong the survival and improve the prognosis of patients with advanced liver cancer and delay the gradual decline of their physiological status.
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J Hepatol. 2002 Jul;37(1):78-86.
Improved prognosis of postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients when treated with functional foods: a prospective cohort study.
Matsui Y1, Uhara J, Satoi S, Kaibori M, Yamada H, Kitade H, Imamura A, Takai S, Kawaguchi Y, Kwon AH, Kamiyama Y.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is a newly developed functional food. In vitro experiments have shown that AHCC enhances natural killer cell activity, and may be considered a potent biological response modifier in the treatment of cancer patients. However, the effects of AHCC in a clinical setting have not been reported. We seek to determine whether AHCC can improve the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients following surgical treatment.
A prospective cohort study was performed from February 1, 1992 to December 31, 2001. A total of 269 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed HCC were studied. All of the patients underwent resection of a liver tumor. Time to treatment failure (disease recurrence or death) and ten parameters related to liver function after surgery were examined.
Of the 269 patients, 113 received AHCC orally after undergoing curative surgery (AHCC group). The AHCC group had a significantly longer no recurrence period (hazard ratio (HR), 0.639; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.429-0.952; P=0.0277) and an increased overall survival rate (HR, 0.421; 95% CI, 0.253-0.701; P=0.0009) when compared to the control group by Cox's multivariate analysis.
This study suggests that AHCC intake can improve the prognosis of postoperative HCC patients.
It could have been something they ate — functional food and the treatment of liver cancer. [J Hepatol. 2002]
Review articles (including results of cell line, animal and human studies)
J Diet Suppl. 2013 Sep;10(3):264-308. doi: 10.3109/19390211.2013.822631. Epub 2013 Aug 9.
An evidence-based systematic review of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.
Ulbricht C1, Brigham A, Bryan JK, Catapang M, Chowdary D, Costa D, Culwell S, D'Auria D, Giese N, Iovin R, Isaac R, Juturu V, Liu A, Mintzer M, Rusie E, Shaffer M, Windsor RC.
An evidence-based systematic review of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration consolidates the safety and efficacy data available in the scientific literature using a validated, reproducible grading rationale. This article includes written and statistical analysis of clinical trials, plus a compilation of expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2011 Jul;35(4):449-58. doi: 10.1177/0148607110380684. Epub 2011 May 31.
An evidence-based review of a Lentinula edodes mushroom extract as complementary therapy in the surgical oncology patient.
Shah SK1, Walker PA, Moore-Olufemi SD, Sundaresan A, Kulkarni AD, Andrassy RJ.
The purpose of this review is to present the currently published evidence regarding the use, efficacy, potential mechanisms of action, and results of published clinical trials regarding the use of a Lentinula edodes mushroom-derived extract (active hexose correlated compound) as complementary therapy in patients with cancer. The authors explore the current preclinical and clinical evidence as it relates to this topic and its potential use in the surgical oncology patient. There has been a growing interest in stimulation of the immune system in trauma, cancer, and surgical patients in general. Little, however, has been written about some-of the supplements in widely used in Japan and China, but relatively unheard of in the United States.
Nutr Rev. 2008 Sep;66(9):526-31. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00085.x.
Supplementation with active hexose correlated compoundincreases survival following infectious challenge in mice.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is a fermented mushroom extract that is promoted for immune support. This review focuses on results from in vivo studies evaluating the effects of AHCC supplementation on survival and the immune response to a variety of infectious agents, including influenza virus, avian influenza virus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Supplementation with AHCC appears to modulate immunity and increase survival in response to acute infection and warrants further investigation.
Gravit Space Biol Bull. 2005 Jun;18(2):31-5.
Use of animal models for space flight physiology studies, with special focus on the immune system.
Animal models have been used to study the effects of space flight on physiological systems. The animal models have been used because of the limited availability of human subjects for studies to be carried out in space as well as because of the need to carry out experiments requiring samples and experimental conditions that cannot be performed using humans. Experiments have been carried out in space using a variety of species, and included developmental biology studies. These species included rats, mice, non-human primates, fish, invertebrates, amphibians and insects. The species were chosen because they best fit the experimental conditions required for the experiments. Experiments with animals have also been carried out utilizing ground-based models that simulate some of the effects of exposure to space flight conditions. Most of the animal studies have generated results that parallel the effects of space flight on human physiological systems. Systems studied have included the neurovestibular system, the musculoskeletal system, the immune system, the neurological system, the hematological system, and the cardiovascular system. Hindlimb unloading, a ground-based model of some of the effects of space flight on the immune system, has been used to study the effects of space flight conditions on physiological parameters. For the immune system, exposure to hindlimb unloading has been shown to results in alterations of the immune system similar to those observed after space flight. This has permitted the development of experiments that demonstrated compromised resistance to infection in rodents maintained in the hindlimb unloading model as well as the beginning of studies to develop countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent such occurrences. Although there are limitations to the use of animal models for the effects of space flight on physiological systems, the animal models should prove very valuable in designing countermeasures for exploration class missions of the future.
Altern Med Rev. 2000 Feb;5(1):4-27.
The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment.
Immunoceuticals can be considered as substances having immunotherapeutic efficacy when taken orally. More than 50 mushroom species have yielded potential immunoceuticals that exhibit anticancer activity in vitro or in animal models and of these, six have been investigated in human cancers. All are non-toxic and very well tolerated. Lentinan and schizophyllan have little oral activity. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is poorly defined but has shown early clinical promise. Maitake D-Fraction has limited proof of clinical efficacy to date, but controlled research is underway. Two proteoglycans from Coriolus versicolor – PSK (Polysaccharide-K) and PSP (Polysaccharide-Peptide – have demonstrated the most promise. In Japanese trials since 1970, PSK significantly extended survival at five years or beyond in cancers of the stomach, colon-rectum, esophagus, nasopharynx, and lung (non-small cell types), and in a HLA B40-positive breast cancer subset. PSP was subjected to Phase II and Phase III trials in China. In double-blind trials, PSP significantly extended five-year survival in esophageal cancer. PSP significantly improved quality of life, provided substantial pain relief, and enhanced immune status in 70-97 percent of patients with cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, ovary, and cervix. PSK and PSP boosted immune cell production, ameliorated chemotherapy symptoms, and enhanced tumor infiltration by dendritic and cytotoxic T-cells. Their extremely high tolerability, proven benefits to survival and quality of life, and compatibility with chemotherapy and radiation therapy makes them well suited for cancer management regimens.
Studies conducted in animal subjects
Parasit Vectors. 2018 Feb 21;11(1):103. doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-2705-z.
Prevention of disease progression in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs with dietary nucleotides and active hexose correlated compound.
Segarra S1, Miró G2, Montoya A2, Pardo-Marín L3, Teichenné J4, Ferrer L5, Cerón JJ3.
The prevalence of Leishmania infantum infection in clinically healthy dogs can be several times higher than that of clinical disease in endemic areas. Although treatment is not recommended in dogs with subclinical infection, these animals should be managed to prevent disease progression and parasite transmission to human beings or to other dogs. Dietary nucleotides and active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) have been shown to modulate the immune response. A recent study in dogs with clinical leishmaniosis receiving an initial 28-day course of methylglucamine antimoniate showed that six-month administration of a dietary supplement containing nucleotides plus AHCC achieves similar efficacy to allopurinol. Since the type of immune response plays a key role in the evolution of patients with leishmaniosis, the present study was aimed at evaluating the preventive effect of this supplement in avoiding or delaying disease progression in clinically healthy Leishmania-infected dogs.
Forty-six dogs were included in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Dogs received once-daily oral administration of a placebo or a dietary supplement containing nucleotides plus AHCC. Disease progression was monitored throughout the study in both groups. At 0, 60, 180 and 365 days of treatment, clinical signs were evaluated using a validated clinical scoring system, and several analytes were measured from blood, urine, and bone marrow samples.
During the study, a significantly lower (P = 0.047) proportion of dogs changed their clinical status and became sick in the supplement group (3/20; 15%), compared to the placebo group (10/22; 45.5%). ELISA-determined antibody titers were significantly reduced compared to baseline at all time points with the supplement (P < 0.01), but not with the placebo. The mean clinical score of disease severity was significantly lower in the supplement group after 180 days (P = 0.014). No significant differences were observed for the other parameters. The dietary supplement was well tolerated.
Oral administration of nucleotides plus AHCC for 365 days in clinically healthy L. infantum-infected dogs is safe, allows a significant reduction in anti-Leishmania antibodies, and leads to a lower disease progression rate, hence exerting a preventive effect.
KEYWORDS: AHCC; Canine leishmaniosis; Clinically healthy infected dogs; Dietary nucleotides; Disease control; Disease progression; Leishmania infantum infection
Integr Cancer Ther. 2017 Sep;16(3):300-307. doi: 10.1177/1534735417704948. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
Evaluation of Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) in Combination With Anticancer Hormones in Orthotopic Breast Cancer Models.
Mathew L1, Gaikwad A1, Gonzalez A1, Nugent EK1, Smith JA2.
To determine the impact on antitumor activity when active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) in combination with anticancer hormonal agents in orthotopic mouse models of human estrogen receptor positive breast cancer and evaluate impact of AHCC on aromatase activity.
The study consisted of 7 treatment arms (n=10) conducted in 2 breast cancer mouse models: MCF-7 and ZR-75. Treatment groups included untreated, vehicle, AHCC 50 mg/kg, AHCC 50 mg/kg + tamoxifen 10 mg/kg, tamoxifen 10 mg/kg, AHCC 50 mg/kg + letrozole 10 µg/mouse, or letrozole 10 µg/mouse. All treatments were administered daily by oral gavage for 12 weeks. Tumors were measured 3 times a week. In vitro estrone and 17β-estradiol enzyme immunoassay was used to evaluate aromatase activity.
There was no difference in the activity with the combination of AHCC + tamoxifen compared with tamoxifen ( P = 0.29). In the ZR-75 model (catechol- O-methyltransferase [COMT] wild-type), there was no difference in activity with the letrozole + AHCC compared with letrozole. However, in the MCF-7 model (COMT variant), AHCC + letrozole resulted in a decrease in activity compared with letrozole ( P < 0.01). Immunoassay data suggested that AHCC is a potential inducer of aromatase activity. In both tumor models, there was cytotoxicity observed with AHCC compared with untreated ( P < 0.02).
AHCC did not change the activity of tamoxifen. AHCC may have some interaction with letrozole in patients with COMT variant genotype. AHCC had cytotoxicity that warrents additional studies to evaluate its potential role for consolidation/prevention of breast cancer.
KEYWORDS: AHCC; breast cancer; drug interactions; letrozole; tamoxifen
PLoS One. 2017 Jul 20;12(7):e0181729. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181729. eCollection 2017.
Active hexose-correlated compound enhances extrinsic-pathway-mediated apoptosis of Acute Myeloid Leukemic cells.
Fatehchand K1,2, Santhanam R2, Shen B2, Erickson EL2, Gautam S2, Elavazhagan S2, Mo X3, Belay T4, Tridandapani S1,2, Butchar JP2.
Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) has been shown to have many immunostimulatory and anti-cancer activities in mice and in humans. As a natural product, AHCC has potential to create safer adjuvant therapies in cancer patients. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is the least curable and second-most common leukemia in adults. AML is especially terminal to those over 60 years old, where median survival is only 5 to 10 months, due to inability to receive intensive chemotherapy. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of AHCC on AML cells both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that AHCC induced Caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in AML cell lines as well as in primary AML leukopheresis samples. Additionally, AHCC induced Caspase-8 cleavage as well as Fas and TRAIL upregulation, suggesting involvement of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. In contrast, monocytes from healthy donors showed suppressed Caspase-3 cleavage and lower cell death. When tested in a murine engraftment model of AML, AHCC led to significantly increased survival time and decreased blast counts. These results uncover a mechanism by which AHCC leads to AML-cell specific death, and also lend support for the further investigation of AHCC as a potential adjuvant for the treatment of AML.
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Vet Parasitol. 2017 May 30;239:50-56. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.04.014. Epub 2017 Apr 23.
Randomized, allopurinol-controlled trial of the effects of dietary nucleotides and active hexose correlated compound in the treatment of canine leishmaniosis.
Segarra S1, Miró G2, Montoya A3, Pardo-Marín L4, Boqué N5, Ferrer L6, Cerón J7.
First-line treatment for canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is N-methylglucamine antimoniate (MGA) combined with allopurinol. However, in some dogs allopurinol may induce hyperxanthinuria leading to urolithiasis. Moreover, allopurinol resistance has recently been described in Leishmania infantum isolates from treated dogs with a relapse of the disease. Alternative treatments are thus needed. Since the type of host immune response strongly influences CanL progression and prognosis, dogs could benefit from treatments targeted at modulating such response, such as nucleotides and active hexose correlated compound (AHCC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral combination of nucleotides and AHCC in dogs with clinical leishmaniosis. Sixty-nine dogs with naturally-occurring clinical leishmaniosis were included in this multicenter, open-label, positively-controlled clinical trial and randomized to receive 10mg/kg allopurinol PO BID (allopurinol group) or 17mg/kg AHCC plus 32mg/kg nucleotides PO SID (supplement group) for 180 days. All dogs were also given 50mg/kg MGA SC BID during the first 28 days. At the time points 0, 30, and 180 days of the trial, dogs underwent a clinical examination, and blood, urine, and bone marrow samples were submitted for analytical tests. Final data analyses (allopurinol group: n=29; supplement group: n=24) revealed a significant improvement in both groups in clinical scores and ELISA-determined antibody titers after treatment. However, the supplement group showed a significantly lower clinical score (P=0.005) and significantly higher antibody titers (P=0.032) after 180 days, compared to the allopurinol group. RT-PCR parasite loads were reduced in groups (mean±SD supplement: 0.38±0.56 vs 5.23±18.9; allopurinol: 0.45±1.47 vs 3.09±8.36 parasites/ng of DNA), but there were no significant differences over time or between groups. During the study, 12 dogs in the allopurinol group developed xanthinuria (41%) compared to no dogs (0%) in the supplement group (P=0.000). Both treatments led to significantly increased CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and improvements in protein electrophoretic pattern and acute phase response. In conclusion, 6-month oral treatment with nucleotides and AHCC in addition to MGA showed similar efficacy to the current first-line treatment for CanL, without producing xanthinuria. This combination could be a good alternative to MGA-allopurinol combination treatment for CanL, especially for dogs suffering allopurinol-related adverse events.
Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS: AHCC; Allopurinol; Canine leishmaniosis; Dietary nucleotides; Hyperxanthinuria; Xanthine
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Int Immunopharmacol. 2016 Oct;39:280-286. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2016.07.023. Epub 2016 Aug 5.
Active hexose correlated compound modulates LPS-induced hypotension and gut injury in rats.
Doursout MF1, Liang Y2, Sundaresan A3, Wakame K4, Fujii H5, Takanari J5, Devakottai S2, Kulkarni A6.
We hypothesized that AHCC; (Amino UP Chemical Co., Ltd., Sapporo, Japan), a mushroom mycelium extract obtained from liquid culture of Lentinula edodes, restores immune function in LPS-induced inflammation in the gut, especially when the nitric oxide signaling pathway is impaired. This is the first inter-disciplinary proposal to identify molecular mechanisms involved in LPS-induced immune dysfunction in the gut in conscious animals treated or non-treated with AHCC, a promoter of immune support. Specifically, we have tested the effects of AHCC on LPS-induced deleterious effects on blood pressure and gut injury in conscious rats. The time course of biological markers of innate/acquired immune responses, and inflammation/oxidative stress is fully described in the present manuscript. Rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups (N=6 per group). Group 1 received 10% of AHCC in drinking water for 5days; Group 2 received lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Escherichia coli 0111:B4 purchased from Sigma) only at 20mg/kg IV; Group 3 received combined treatments (AHCC + LPS). LPS was administered at 20mg/kg IV, 5days following AHCC treatment. We have demonstrated that AHCC decreased the LPS-deleterious effects of blood pressure and also decreased inflammatory markers e.g., cytokines, nitric oxide and edema formation. Finally, AHCC diminished lymphocyte infiltration, restoring gut architecture. Because AHCC was administered prior to LPS, our results indicate the potential impact of AHCC's prophylactic effects on LPS inflammation. Consequently, additional experiments are warrant to assess its therapeutic effects in sepsis-induced inflammation.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS: AHCC; Gut; Hemodynamic; Inflammation; Nitric oxide; Rats
Eur J Nutr. 2016 Feb;55(1):139-46. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-0832-2. Epub 2015 Jan 18.
Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) promotes an intestinal immune response in BALB/c mice and in primary intestinal epithelial cell culture involving toll-like receptors TLR-2 and TLR-4.
Mallet JF1, Graham É2, Ritz BW3, Homma K4, Matar C5.
Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC(®)) is a cultured mushroom extract that is commercially available and promoted for immune support. Available data suggest that AHCC supplementation affects immune cell populations and immune outcomes, including natural killer cell response to infection. The mechanism by which AHCC exerts its effects is not well understood. The present work aimed to characterize the immunomodulatory activity of AHCC in the gut and to study the effects of AHCC on toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs).
BALB/c mice were fed AHCC by gavage. In vivo activities were assessed by immunohistochemistry and cytokine production. The effects of AHCC on ex vivo primary cell culture from IECs were examined after challenge with LPS or E. coli alone or in the presence of anti-TLR-2 and TLR-4 blocking antibodies.
Feeding AHCC resulted in increased IgA+ cells in the intestine and increased sIgA, IL-10, and IFN-γ in the intestinal fluid. In IECs, contact with AHCC increased IL-6 production but not to the pro-inflammatory level of positive controls, LPS and E. coli. Blocking TLR-2 and TLR-4 reduced the induction of IL-6 by AHCC, suggesting that these innate receptors are involved in generating the immune response of IECs to AHCC.
AHCC may play a role in the orchestration of immune response and the maintenance of immune homeostasis in part by priming the TLR-2 and TLR-4 gate at the intestinal epithelium. Such a response is likely due to the recognition of non-pathogenic food-associated molecular patterns (FAMPs) such as those found associated with other mushroom or yeast-derived compounds.
KEYWORDS: AHCC; E. coli; FAMP; Infection; Innate; Mushroom; Toll-like receptor
Cytokine. 2015 Dec;76(2):131-137. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2015.06.002. Epub 2015 Jun 13.
Therapeutic effect of Active Hexose-Correlated Compound (AHCC) combined with CpG-ODN (oligodeoxynucleotide) in B16 melanoma murine model.
Ignacio RM1, Kim CS2, Kim YD2, Lee HM2, Qi XF3, Kim SK4.
While Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) are separately known to modulate oxidative stress and immune responses in cancer patients, the combined effect of these two compounds is unknown. To clarify this, we investigated whether AHCC plus KSK-CpG ODN would be therapeutic in B16 melanoma mouse model, if so, and how in reduction-oxidation (redox) balance and cytokines network. We found that treatment groups (AHCC only, KSK-CpG ODN only and AHCC/KSK-CpG ODN) markedly reduced (p<0.001) tumor size when compared to the positive control (PC) group. The total white blood cell (WBC) of AHCC only and KSK-CpG ODN only-treated groups showed significant lower counts than that of PC group. Next, the production of nitric oxide (NO) was significantly increased (p<0.01) in AHCC/KSK-CpG ODN group compared to the PC group. Further, the redox balance was improved in AHCC/KSK-CpG ODN group through significantly low (p<0.001) reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and significantly high (p<0.05) glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity compared to the PC group. Finally, AHCC/KSK-CpG ODN (p<0.01) and KSK-CpG ODN (p<0.001)-treated groups augmented tumor immune surveillance as shown by significantly increased level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) and significantly decreased (p<0.05) level of pro-tumorigenic IL-6 of AHCC/KSK-CpG ODN treated group as compared to the PC group. Collectively, our study indicates therapeutic effect of Active Hexose-Correlated Compound (AHCC) combined with KSK-CpG ODN in B16 melanoma murine model via balancing redox and cytokines network.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS: Cytokine; Immune response; Oxidative stress; Redox balance; Tumor immunity
J Nutr Med Diet Care. 2015;1(1). pii: JNMDC-1-006. Epub 2015 Sep 15.
Active Hexose Correlated Compound Activates Immune Function to Decrease Chlamydia trachomatis Shedding in a Murine Stress Model.
A cold-induced stress mouse model for investigating chlamydia genital infection and immune response analysis was established in our laboratory. Previous results showed that cold-induced stress results in suppression of the immune response and increased intensity of chlamydia genital infection in the mouse model. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic value of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) against chlamydia genital infection in mice. AHCC is an extract of mushroom commonly used as a dietary supplement is known to boost the immune system. Mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia trachomatis after a 24-day cold-stress application. Oral administration of AHCC to stressed or non-stressed mice was carried out seven days before infection and during the course of infection along with cervicovaginal swabbing. Cytokine production by peritoneal and splenic T cells isolated from AHCC-fed stressed mice and non-stressed mice was measured ELISA. Splenic T cells from both animal groups were co-cultured with mouse monocyte J774.2 cell line or cultured by addition of supernatants of AHCC-treated J774.2 cell line for 24 hours. Infection studies showed that AHCC-feeding compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-feeding to stressed mice resulted in reduced Chlamydia trachomatis shedding from the genital tract. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were significantly increased in stressed mice receiving AHCC compared to stressed mice receiving PBS. Production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the AHCC group was significantly high compared to production in PBS-fed group. Splenic T cells from stressed and non-stressed cultured with supernatants of AHCC-treated J774.2 cell line resulted in significantly increased TNF-α or IFN-γ production. Results obtained in this study show that AHCC improves the function of immune cells as indicated by the restoration of levels of cytokines production that were suppressed under cold induced-stress conditions. This is the first report showing that oral administration of AHCC enhances the function of the immune system, which could result in increased resistance of the host to chlamydia genital infection.
KEYWORDS: Chlamydia; Cold-induced stress; active hexose correlated compound
Nutr Res Pract. 2015 Apr;9(2):129-36. doi: 10.4162/nrp.2015.9.2.129. Epub 2014 Dec 26.
Active hexose correlated compound potentiates the antitumor effects of low-dose 5-fluorouracil through modulation of immune function in hepatoma 22 tumor-bearing mice.
Cao Z1, Chen X1, Lan L2, Zhang Z3, Du J2, Liao L1.
A variety of immunomodulators can improve the efficacy of low-dose chemotherapeutics. Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), a mushroom mycelia extract, has been shown to be a strong immunomodulator. Whether AHCC could enhance the antitumor effect of low-dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) via regulation of host immunity is unknown.
In the current study Hepatoma 22 (H22) tumor-bearing mice were treated with PBS, 5-FU (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), i.p), or AHCC (360 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), i.g) plus 5-FU, respectively, for 5 d. CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and NK in peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometry. ALT, AST, BUN, and Cr levels were measured by biochemical assay. IL-2 and TNFα in serum were measured using the RIA kit and apoptosis of tumor was detected by TUNEL staining. Bax, Bcl-2, and TS protein levels were measured by immunohistochemical staining and mRNA level was evaluated by RT-PCR.
Diet consumption and body weight showed that AHCC had no apparent toxicity. AHCC could reverse liver injury and myelosuppression induced by 5-FU (P < 0.05). Compared to mice treated with 5-FU, mice treated with AHCC plus 5-FU had higher thymus index, percentages of CD3(+), CD4(+), and NK cells (P < 0.01), and ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) (P < 0.01) in peripheral blood. Radioimmunoassay showed that mice treated with AHCC plus 5-FU had the highest serum levels of IL-2 and TNFα compared with the vehicle group and 5-FU group. More importantly, the combination of AHCC and 5-FU produced a more potent antitumor effect (P < 0.05) and caused more severe apoptosis in tumor tissue (P < 0.05) compared with the 5-FU group. In addition, the combination of AHCC and 5-FU further up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) (P < 0.01), while it down-regulated the expression of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) (P < 0.01).
These results support the claim that AHCC might be beneficial for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.
KEYWORDS: 5-fluorouracil; Muschroom; hepatocarcinoma; immune; toxicity
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Dec;58(12):2379-82. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201400364. Epub 2014 Oct 2.
Active hexose correlated compound exerts therapeutic effects in lymphocyte driven colitis.
Mascaraque C1, Suárez MD, Zarzuelo A, Sánchez de Medina F, Martínez-Augustin O.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is a commercial extract of Basidiomycetes fungi enriched in oligosaccharides that is used as a human nutritional supplement for various purposes in humans. Our aim was to study the anti-inflammatory effect of AHCC in the CD4+ CD62L(+) T cell transfer model of colitis, considered one of the closest to the human disease. Colitis was induced by transfer of CD4(+) CD62L(+) T cells to recombination activating gene 1(-/-) mice. AHCC (75 mg/d) was administered by gavage as a post-treatment. Three groups were established: noncolitic, colitic (CD4(+) CD62L(+) transferred mice treated with vehicle), and AHCC (colitic treated with AHCC). AHCC improved colitis, as evidenced by a 24% lower colonic myeloperoxidase and a 21% lower alkaline phosphatase activity. In addition, a decreased secretion of proinflammatory genes assessed by RT-qPCR was observed, particularly TNF-α and IL-1β. Ex vivo mesenteric lymph node cells obtained from AHCC treated mice exhibited a fully normalized production of IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10 (p < 0.05). Also, AHCC treated mice exhibited decreased STAT4 and IκB-α phosphorylation in splenic CD4(+) cells. Our data provide validation of AHCC colonic anti-inflammatory activity in a chronic, T cell driven model of inflammatory bowel disease.
© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
KEYWORDS: AHCC; CD4+ CD62L+ T cell; Inflammatory bowel disease; Nutraceutical; Prebiotic
Ann Transl Med. 2014 Feb;2(2):14. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2014.01.05.
Immune-enhancing effects of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) and Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extracts.
Vetvicka V1, Vetvickova J1.
The role of glucan in stimulation of immune reactions has been studied for several decades. In this report, we focused on the effects of orally administered glucan Maitake and Shiitake on immune reactions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
We measured phagocytosis, NK cell activity, and secretion of IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) after 14 days of oral application of tested glucans. For comparison, active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) was used in all reactions.
We found significant stimulation of defense reaction. In all cases, the most active was the Maitake-Shiitake combination, with Maitake alone being the second strongest, followed by Shiitake on its own and AHCC.
Short-term oral application of natural immunomodulating glucans from Maitake and Shiitake mushrooms strongly stimulated both the cellular and humoral branch of immune reactions. These activities were significantly higher than those of AHCC.
KEYWORDS: C-reactive protein (CRP); NK cells; Phagocytosis; cytokines; glucan
J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Jun;74(6):1411-8. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31829215b1.
A natural immune modulator attenuates stress hormone and catecholamine concentrations in polymicrobial peritonitis.
Love KM1, Barnett RE, Holbrook I, Sonnenfeld G, Fujii H, Sun B, Peyton JC, Cheadle WG.
Activated hexose correlated compound (AHCC), derived from shiitake mushrooms, increases resistance to infection in immunocompromised hosts with positive effects on dendritic cells, natural killer cell function and interleukin 12 production. It may also be attenuating the systemic inflammatory response by regulating the secretion of cortisol and norepinephrine (NE).
Female Swiss-Weber mice were pretreated with AHCC (Amino Up Chemical Co., Sapporo, Japan) or water by gavage for 10 days before undergoing cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Peritoneal exudate cells and blood samples were harvested at 4 hours and 24 hours following CLP. Plasma and peritoneal concentrations of cortisol and NE were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peritoneal bacteria were quantified by colony counts after 4 hours and 24 hours. Significance was denoted by a p < 0.05.
Plasma and peritoneal cortisol concentrations were increased 4 hours after CLP compared with normal controls, with no difference between the pretreated groups. Concentrations of cortisol decreased from 4 hours to 24 hours after CLP with AHCC (plasma, p = 0.009; peritoneal, p < 0.001), and peritoneal cortisol at 24 hours was lower with AHCC as compared with water (p = 0.028). There was no change in plasma or peritoneal NE concentrations at 4 hours. At 24 hours, higher concentrations of NE were detected in both plasma and peritoneal fluid, with lower plasma concentrations in those gavaged with AHCC (p = 0.015). There was no significant difference in peritoneal bacteria counts.
Enhanced immune function observed with AHCC could be caused by attenuated concentrations of stress hormones and catecholamines.
Eur J Nutr. 2013 Mar;52(2):457-66. doi: 10.1007/s00394-012-0347-z. Epub 2012 Sep 1.
Active hexose-correlated compound and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 exert symbiotic effects in experimental colitis.
Ocón B1, Anzola A, Ortega-González M, Zarzuelo A, Suárez MD, Sánchez de Medina F, Martínez-Augustin O.
Active hexose-correlated compound (AHCC) is a commercial extract obtained from Basidiomycetes under controlled conditions, yielding a 74 % content in oligosaccharides, especially α-glucans. AHCC has a number of therapeutic effects, including intestinal anti-inflammatory activity. Bifidobacterium longum BB536 is a probiotic with potential health-promoting effect at the gut level. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of synergism between AHCC, which is believed to act as a prebiotic, and B. longum BB536.
We used the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid model (TNBS) of colitis in rats. AHCC (100 or 500 mg kg(-1)) and B. longum BB536 (5 × 10(6) CFU rat(-1) day(-1)) were administered together or separately for 7 days prior to colitis induction and then for another 7 days and compared with control (noncolitic) and TNBS rats.
The results show that both treatments had intestinal anti-inflammatory activity separately, which was enhanced when used in combination, as shown by changes in body weight gain, colonic weight to length ratio, myeloperoxydase activity and iNOS expression. Interestingly, the association of AHCC 100 mg kg(-1) + B. longum BB536 showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity.
Our data provide a preclinical experimental basis for the synergistic effect of AHCC and B. longum BB536 on inflammatory bowel disease.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011 Mar;59(2):237-50. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2010.10.006. Epub 2010 Oct 14.
Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity evaluation of Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC).
Fujii H1, Nishioka N, Simon RR, Kaur R, Lynch B, Roberts A.
Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC), a mushroom extract rich in α-1,4 linked glucans, is associated with immunostimulatory effects. AHCC is used in Japan as a dietary supplement to boost immune function and it also is purported to improve the symptoms of cancer and liver disease patients. A series of toxicological studies were conducted on a freeze dried preparation of AHCC (AHCC-FD) to further develop the body of evidence supporting the safety of this ingredient. AHCC-FD was not mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium and did not exhibit clastogenicity in a mouse micronucleus assay. In a 90-day study, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 1000, 3000, or 6000 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage. No changes attributable to AHCC-FD treatment were observed in overall condition, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology findings, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, and absolute and relative organ weights. Changes in urinary pH values observed in high-dose animals and mid-dose females were considered physiological rather than adverse effects given the acidic nature of AHCC-FD. Urinary protein also was increased in the same dose groups. As this finding was associated with decreased urinary pH and no evidence of kidney dysfunction was observed, it was considered of no toxicological significance. Histopathological changes related to AHCC-FD administration were observed in the limiting ridge of the stomach and in the liver of the high-dose group. The NOAEL was considered to be 3000 mg/kg body weight/day.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2009 Oct;33(3-4):293-9. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2009.07.006. Epub 2009 Aug 20.
The effect of active hexose correlated compound in modulating cytosine arabinoside-induced hair loss, and 6-mercaptopurine- and methotrexate-induced liver injury in rodents.
Sun B1, Wakame K, Sato E, Nishioka H, Aruoma OI, Fujii H.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) (a mixture of polysaccharides, amino acids, lipids and minerals derived from cultured mycelia of a Basidiomycete mushroom, Lentinula edodes) was used to assess amelioration of alopecia (hair loss) caused by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) and modulation of liver injury caused by single doses 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) plus methotrexate (MTX).
Follicular integrity and hair growth was assessed in male and female SD neonatal rats (8 days old) treated with a single dose of Ara-C (30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and AHCC (500 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 7 consecutive days. The side effects of a single oral dose of 6-MP (2.5mg/kg body weight) plus MTX (30 mg/kg body weight) and their amelioration by treatment with AHCC (1000 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days were assessed in male ddY mice (8 weeks old).
Of the Ara-C treated rats 71.4% showed severe alopecia and 28.6% showed moderate alopecia. However, the AHCC (p.o.)-treated Ara-C group was significantly protected from alopecia. Ara-C treated rats had profound loss of hair follicles but the Ara-C plus AHCC-treated group had mild losses of follicles. AHCC supplementation to the 6-MP- and MTX-treated mice significantly increased body weight, erythrocytes, leukocytes and serum albumin, improved liver hypertrophy and degeneration, normalized the activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (sGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (sGPT), and enhanced liver drug-metabolizing enzymes.
Co-administration of AHCC significantly reduced the side effects associated with Ara-C, 6-MP and MTX. However, the molecular mechanism for AHCC activity and its clinical integrity for use needs defining.
J Exp Ther Oncol. 2009;8(1):43-51.
Alleviating effect of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) for anticancer drug-induced side effects in non-tumor-bearing mice.
Shigama K1, Nakaya A, Wakame K, Nishioka H, Fujii H.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is an extract of a basidiomycete mushroom that is used as a supplement by some cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy; it is thought to enhance the therapeutic effects and reduce the side effects of select anticarcinogenic agents. AHCC has been reported to strengthen the anticancer effects of cisplatin (CDDP) and ameliorate its side effects in female BALB/cA mice inoculated with Colon-26 tumor cells. In this study, the role of AHCC in alleviating the side effects induced by several other anticancer drugs was explored in non-tumor-bearing mice receiving monotherapy with paclitaxel (TAX), or multi-drug chemotherapy with TAX plus CDDP, 5-fluorouracil (5FU) plus irinotecan, CDDP plus 5FU, or doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide. Outcomes from the drug treatment groups with and without AHCC supplementation were compared to controls that received vehicle alone. The multi-drug treatments significantly reduced bone marrow cell viability in all groups and leukocyte count in all groups except for TAX+CDDP; these myelosuppresive effects were generally alleviated by AHCC. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity caused by the treatments that included TAX and CDDP were also significantly improved by AHCC. The death rate was 20 to 30 percent in all treatment groups except TAX+CDDP, and supplementation with AHCC greatly reduced or eliminated mortality. These results support the concept that AHCC can be beneficial for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.
J Nutr. 2009 Mar;139(3):598-602. doi: 10.3945/jn.108.100297. Epub 2009 Jan 13.
Oral administration of active hexose correlated compoundenhances host resistance to West Nile encephalitis in mice.
Wang S1, Welte T, Fang H, Chang GJ, Born WK, O'Brien RL, Sun B, Fujii H, Kosuna K, Wang T.
West Nile virus (WNV) poses a serious threat to public health, especially to the elderly and the immuno-compromised. Neither vaccines nor treatments are available for humans. Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is an extract of Lentinula edodes of the Basidiomycete family of fungi rich in alpha-glucans. In this study, we evaluated the effect of AHCC on host susceptibility in the murine model of WNV infection. Mice orally administered with AHCC (600 mg/kg) every other day for 1 wk before and at d 1 and 3 postinfection were assessed using viremia levels, survival rate, and protective immunity. AHCC administration in young (6- to 8-wk-old) mice attenuated viremia and mortality following lethal WNV infection. WNV-specific IgM and IgG production and gammadelta T cell expansion were also enhanced in these mice. Aged (21- to 22-mo-old) mice were more susceptible to WNV infection than young mice, partially due to the dysfunction of gammadelta T cell subsets. AHCC administration in aged mice enhanced the protective Vgamma1(+) T cell response as well as WNV-specific IgG but not IgM antibodies production. AHCC administration in aged mice attenuated viremia levels but led to no difference in mortality rate. Overall, our data suggests that AHCC enhances protective host immune responses against WNV infection in young and aged mice. Dietary supplementation with AHCC may be potentially immunotherapeutic for WNV-susceptible populations.
Nutr Res. 2009 Feb;29(2):139-43. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2009.01.005.
Low-dose supplementation with active hexose correlated compound improves the immune response to acute influenza infection in C57BL/6 mice.
Nogusa S1, Gerbino J, Ritz BW.
Supplementation with mushroom-derived active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) modulates immunity and increases survival in response to a broad spectrum of acute infections, including influenza virus infection. However, dose-response data are nonexistent. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate AHCC supplementation at various doses and determine the effects of low-dose supplementation on the immune response in a mouse model of influenza virus infection. We hypothesized that AHCC supplementation would influence the immune response to influenza infection in a dose-dependent manner. Male C57BL/6 mice were supplemented with AHCC at daily doses of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 g/kg and infected intranasally with influenza A virus (H1N1, PR8). Supplemented mice demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in survival and reduction in the loss of body weight. To further evaluate the effects of low-dose AHCC supplementation on the immune response to influenza infection, mice were supplemented with 0.1 g/kg per day and infected with a sublethal dose of influenza virus. Supplemented mice exhibited enhanced virus clearance and decreased weight loss compared to controls. Low-dose supplementation did not influence total natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, although lytic efficiency was increased in the spleens of AHCC-supplemented mice, indicating enhanced NK cell function per cell. In conclusion, these data suggest that the effects of AHCC on the immune response to influenza infection are dose dependent and that low-dose AHCC supplementation improves the response to influenza infection despite no effect on total NK cell cytotoxicity.
Am J Surg. 2008 Apr;195(4):537-45. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2007.05.045.
Active hexose correlated compound activates immune function to decrease bacterial load in a murine model of intramuscular infection.
Aviles H1, O'Donnell P, Orshal J, Fujii H, Sun B, Sonnenfeld G.
Infection is a serious, costly, and common complication of surgery and constitutes the principal cause of late death in patients undergoing surgery. The objective of this study was to clarify the mechanisms by which active hexose correlated compound(AHCC) increases survival in a murine model of intramuscular infection.
Food-deprived mice receiving either AHCC or excipient were infected with bacteria. Kinetics of bacterial load, white blood cell counts, cytokine levels, and antibody levels were compared between groups.
AHCC-treated mice had reduced bacterial load at day 5 and cleared bacteria entirely at day 6. Levels of interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 peaked earlier in this group (day 3) compared with controls (day 5). Increased percentages of peripheral lymphocytes and monocytes and decreased numbers of polymorphonuclear cells were detected in the AHCC group.
AHCC appears to induce an early activation of the immune response, leading to an effective clearance of bacteria and rapid recovery.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Jul 15;222(2):152-8. Epub 2007 Apr 20.
The influence of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) on cisplatin-evoked chemotherapeutic and side effects in tumor-bearing mice.
Hirose A1, Sato E, Fujii H, Sun B, Nishioka H, Aruoma OI.
Cisplatin (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) or CDDP) (a widely used platinum-containing anticancer drug) is nephrotoxic and has a low percentage of tolerance in patients during chemotherapy. The active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is an extract of Basidiomycotina marketed as a supplement for cancer patients due to its nutrients and fibre content and its ability to strengthen and optimize the capacity of the immune system. The possibility that AHCC could reduce the side effects of cisplatin was assessed in the tumor-bearing BALB/cA mice on the basis of the ability to ameliorate the cisplatin-induced body weight loss, anorexia, nephrotoxicity and hematopoietic toxicity. Although cisplatin (8 mg/kg body weight) reduced the size and weight of the solid tumors, supplementation with AHCC significantly enhanced cisplatin-induced antitumor effect in both the size (p<0.05) and weight (p<0.05). Food intake in the cisplatin-treated mice were decreased following commencement of treatment and this remained low compared with the cisplatin-untreated group (control) throughout the experiment period. Supplementation with AHCC increased the food intake in the cisplatin-treated mice. The blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine concentrations, and the ratio of blood urea nitrogen to serum creatinine were significantly increased in the cisplatin alone treated group compared to the control group. Their increased levels were mitigated by supplementation with AHCC (100 mg/kg body weight) in the cisplatin-treated group. AHCC was also able to modulate the suppression of bone marrow due to cisplatin and the improvement was statistically significant. The histopathological examination of the kidney revealed the presence of cisplatin-induced damage and this was modulated by AHCC treatment. The potential for AHCC to ameliorate the cisplatin-evoked toxicity as well as the chemotherapeutic effect could have beneficial economic implications for patients undergoing chemotherapy with cisplatin.
J Nutr. 2007 May;137(5):1222-8.
Active hexose correlated compound acts as a prebiotic and is antiinflammatory in rats with hapten-induced colitis.
Daddaoua A1, Martínez-Plata E, López-Posadas R, Vieites JM, González M, Requena P, Zarzuelo A, Suárez MD, de Medina FS, Martínez-Augustin O.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is a product prepared from the mycelium of edible Basidiomycete fungi that contains oligosaccharides. Here we have studied the antiinflammatory effect of AHCC in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of colitis in rats. Rats received AHCC (100 or 500 mg/kg) daily starting 2 d before (pretreatment) colitis induction and were killed 6 d after the TNBS challenge. The status of the rats was assessed by morphological and biochemical methods. The effect of AHCC on the colonic microflora was also assessed by studying the bacteria profile in feces by standard culture techniques. AHCC administration attenuated colonic inflammation, improving rat weight, food intake, damage score, extension of necrosis, colonic weight, colonic weight-to-length ratio, myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase activities, glutathione concentration, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-1beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist, TNF, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and of mucins 2-4 and trefoil factor 3. The magnitude of the antiinflammatory effect of AHCC was similar to that of sulfasalazine (200 mg/kg). The study of colonic microflora indicated that rats treated with AHCC had higher aerobic and lactic acid bacteria counts as well as higher bifidobacteria counts, whereas clostridia were reduced when compared with the TNBS group. Therefore, our results indicate that AHCC is antiinflammatory and could be useful as a prebiotic to design functional foods for inflammatory bowel disease patients.
Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2006 Dec;7(6):527-35.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) enhances resistance to infection in a mouse model of surgical wound infection.
Aviles H1, O'Donnell P, Sun B, Sonnenfeld G.
Infection is the most common postoperative complication within the surgical wound and during severe trauma. In spite of the use of modern sterile techniques and prophylaxis, infection continues to be a leading cause of death in these patients. Therefore, it has become crucial to develop new alternatives to prevent the effects of trauma and other complications on the immune system and improve resistance to infection. The objective of this study was to test the prophylactic effects of oral administration of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), a natural immunoenhancer, on survival in a mouse model of surgical soft tissue infection.
The model involves the intramuscular administration of a 50% lethal dose (LD50) of K. pneumoniae to mice that have restricted food intake for 24 hours prior to and six hours after infection and simulates local infection and food deprivation that often occur during trauma or surgical procedures. In the present study, AHCC was administrated orally to Swiss Webster mice for eight days prior to and during the infection period. Survival, time of death, LD50, and clearance of bacteria of this group were compared with those control mice receiving the excipient alone.
Survival and mean time to death were increased significantly in the AHCC-treated group; the LD50 was greater in mice receiving AHCC than in mice receiving the excipient. Mice receiving AHCC were better able to clear bacteria from their systems than were control animals.
The results suggest that AHCC protects mice in this model by restoring the immune and other systems negatively affected by trauma, infection, and food deprivation. More studies are necessary to determine the intrinsic mechanisms involved in this model and whether AHCC can prevent infection or improve survival in human beings with severe trauma or undergoing surgical procedures.
J Nutr. 2006 Nov;136(11):2868-73.
Supplementation with active hexose correlated compoundincreases the innate immune response of young mice to primary influenza infection.
Ritz BW1, Nogusa S, Ackerman EA, Gardner EM.
The emergence of H5N1 avian influenza and the threat of new or adapted viruses in bioterrorism have created an urgent interest in identifying agents to enhance the immune response to primary virus infection. Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is a natural mushroom extract reported to increase natural killer (NK) cell activity, survival, and bacterial clearance in young mice. However, the effects of AHCC on the response to viral infections have not been studied. In this study, young C57BL/6 mice were supplemented with 1 g AHCC/(kg body weight x d) for 1 wk prior to and throughout infection with influenza A (H1N1, PR8). Supplementation increased survival, decreased the severity of infection, and shortened recovery time following intranasal infection with flu, as determined by the recovery of body weight and epithelial integrity in the lungs. AHCC increased NK activity in lungs at d 1 (P < 0.05) and d 4 (P < 0.01) and in the spleen at d 2 postinfection (P < 0.01). Supplementation increased the percentage (P < 0.05) and number (P < 0.01) of NK1.1+ cells in the lung and reduced the infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages compared with controls (P < 0.01). These data suggest that AHCC supplementation boosts NK activity, improves survival, and reduces the severity of influenza infection in young mice. Bolstering innate immunity with dietary bioactives may be one avenue for improving the immune response to primary flu infection.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2006 Oct;55(10):1258-66. Epub 2005 Dec 16.
Active hexose correlated compound enhances tumor surveillance through regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses.
Gao Y1, Zhang D, Sun B, Fujii H, Kosuna K, Yin Z.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is a mixture of polysaccharides, amino acids, lipids and minerals derived from cocultured mycelia of several species of Basidiomycete mushrooms. AHCC has been implicated to modulate immune functions and plays a protective role against infection. However, the potential role of AHCC in tumor immune surveillance is unknown. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were orally administered AHCC or water, followed by tumor cell inoculation. We showed that compared to pure water-treated mice, AHCC treatment significantly delayed tumor development after inoculation of either melanoma cell line B16F0 or lymphoma cell line EL4. Treatment with AHCC enhanced both Ag-specific activation and proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, increased the number of tumor Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells, and more importantly, increased the frequency of tumor Ag-specific IFN-gamma producing CD8(+) T cells. Interestingly, AHCC treatment also showed increased cell number of NK and gammadelta T cells, indicating the role of AHCC in activating these innate-like lymphocytes. In summary, our results demonstrate that AHCC can enhance tumor immune surveillance through regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004 Oct;97(4):1437-44. Epub 2004 Jun 11.
Active hexose correlated compound enhances the immune function of mice in the hindlimb-unloading model of spaceflight conditions.
Aviles H1, Belay T, Vance M, Sun B, Sonnenfeld G.
Hindlimb unloading is a ground-based model that simulates some of the aspects of spaceflight conditions, including lack of load bearing on hindlimbs and a fluid shift to the head. It has been shown that treatment with active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) restores resistance to infection in mice maintained under hindlimb-unloading conditions. The present study was designed to clarify the mechanisms by which AHCC enhances resistance to infection in this model. We hypothesized that oral administration of AHCC will enhance the function of the immune system, which could lead to the increased resistance to infection observed in this model. AHCC or the excipient was orally administered to mice, and the function of the immune system was assessed in spleen and peritoneal cells isolated from those groups. The results of the present study showed that administration of AHCC for 1 wk before and throughout the second day of the hindlimb-unloading period enhanced the function of the immune system assessed by spleen cell proliferation and cytokine production in spleens and nitric oxide and cytokine production in peritoneal cells. These findings suggest that AHCC can be used as a potent immunoenhancer, especially in cases in which the immune system is suppressed by any condition, including diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus infection and cancer.
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Endocr Regul. 2004 Mar;38(1):7-13.
Amelioration by active hexose correlated compound of endocrine disturbances induced by oxidative stress in the rat.
Ye SF1, Wakame K, Ichimura K, Matsuzaki S.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), an extract derived from fungi of Basidiomycetes family, has been found to be a potent antioxidant. Since the secretion of some hormones can be affected by reactive oxygen species, the objective of this study was to examine how ferric nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA), which generates hydroxyl radicals in vivo, modulates the hormone secretion and the effects of AHCC.
AHCC at 3 % in drinking water was given to male rats for one week, and the animals were decapitated at different time intervals after the treatment with FeNTA intraperitoneally. Serum levels of hormones (corticosterone, testosterone, thyroxine and triiodothyronine), adrenal ascorbic acid as well as changes in hepatic oxidative status were evaluated by immunoassay and spectrometry.
Serum corticosterone levels increased significantly following FeNTA treatment, while AHCC reduced the increased levels to normal. Adrenal ascorbic acid levels that reflect ACTH secretion, were decreased by FeNTA and restored to normal by AHCC. Serum levels of testosterone and thyroxine (T4) decreased rapidly after FeNTA treatment, while AHCC pretreatment prevented this fall. Serum triiodothyroxine (T3) levels remained unchanged either by FeNTA or AHCC treatment. The hepatic oxidized glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes and also serum lipid peroxide were greatly enhanced after FeNTA treatment. All of these changes were restored to normal by AHCC pretreatment.
FeNTA induces various endocrine disorders and AHCC ameliorates these effects by acting as an antioxidant.
Life Sci. 2003 Dec 19;74(5):593-602.
Suppressive effects of Active Hexose Correlated Compound on the increased activity of hepatic and renal ornithine decarboxylase induced by oxidative stress.
Ye SF1, Ichimura K, Wakame K, Ohe M.
Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC), an extract derived from fungi of Basidiomycetes family has been shown to act as a biological response modifier in various disorders. In our present study, ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA), which generates hydroxyl radicals in vivo, was given intraperitoneally to rats and AHCC was tested for its ability to suppress oxidative stress and the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in the liver and kidney. Substantial increments in glutathione-related enzymes including glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase activity as well as oxidized glutathione contents were shown in the liver at 12 h after treatment with Fe-NTA (7.5 mg Fe/kg body weight). Effects of oxidative stress induced by Fe-NTA were also demonstrated by the increase in serum lipid peroxidation, aminotransferases and urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine. However, the increases in these parameters were restored to normal in AHCC-pretreated rats. The ODC activity in the liver and kidney was significantly increased by Fe-NTA, while the increased ODC activity induced by Fe-NTA was normalized in AHCC-pretreated rats. These results suggest AHCC acts as a potent antioxidant and protects against disorders induced by oxidative stresses.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003 Aug;95(2):491-6. Epub 2003 Apr 11.
Active hexose correlated compound enhances resistance to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in mice in the hindlimb-unloading model of spaceflight conditions.
Aviles H1, Belay T, Fountain K, Vance M, Sun B, Sonnenfeld G.
Previous studies have demonstrated that resistance to infection is decreased in Swiss Webster female mice maintained in the hindlimb-unloading model (Aviles H, Belay T, Fountain K, Vance M, and Sonnenfeld G. J Appl Physiol 95: 73-80, 2003; Belay T, Aviles H, Vance M, Fountain K, and Sonnenfeld G. J Allergy Clin Immunol 110: 262-268, 2002). This is a model of some of the aspects of spaceflight conditions, including lack of load bearing on hindlimbs and a fluid shift to the head. Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), extracted from Basidiomycete mushrooms, has been shown to induce enhancement of immune responses, including enhanced natural killer activity. In the present study, AHCC was orally administered to mice to determine whether the treatment could decrease immunosuppression and mortality of mice maintained in the hindlimb-unloaded model and infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results of the present study showed that administration of AHCC by gavage for 1 wk (1 g/kg body wt) before suspension and throughout the 10-day suspension period yielded significant beneficial effects for the hindlimb-unloaded group, including 1). decreased mortality, 2). increased time to death, and 3). increased ability to clear bacteria. The results suggest that AHCC can decrease the deleterious effects of the hindlimb-unloading model on immunity and resistance to infection.
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In Vivo. 2002 Jan-Feb;16(1):49-54.
H-2 haplotype-dependent serum IL-12 production in tumor-bearing mice treated with various mycelial extracts.
Yagita A1, Maruyama S, Wakasugi S, Sukegawa Y.
IL-12 is considered to be one of the most important cytokines in anti-cancer therapy. We have demonstrated that substances derived from Basidiomycetes, such as active hexose-correlated compound (AHCC) and PSK induce the production of IL-12. In this study, the MHC dependency of IL-12 production induced by various mycelial extracts, PSK, AHCC and IL-X, was examined. During tumor-bearing, higher serum IL-12 levels were observed in H-2a and H-2b mice as compared to H-2d mice. Concerning the effect of genetic background of mice on response to mycelial extracts, AHCC administration enhanced the serum IL-12 level in H-2b mice but not in H-2d mice, while PSK administration increased the serum IL-12 level in H-2d mice but not in H-2b mice. IL-X, components derived from the same Basidiomycetes, also enhanced the serum IL-12 level in H-2b mice in the early stage of tumor like AHCC, and maintained serum IL-12 at a level higher than the normal value accompanying tumor growth, whereas AHCC did not restore the lowered serum IL-12 level accompanying tumor growth. These results showed that AHCC or IL-X is effective in a genetically Th1-dominant individual whereas PSK is effective in a genetically Th2-dominant individual or Th2-dominant status in advanced cancer patients. So we propose that the suitable combinations of various mycelial extracts may be effective methods of endogenous IL-12 induction for cancer patients of all stages, which is important as a cancer therapy that is relatively free from adverse reactions and which emphasizes the QOL in individual patients.
Endocr Regul. 2000 Dec;34(4):181-8.
Suppressive effect of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) on thymic apoptosis induced by dexamethasone in the rat.
Burikhanov RB1, Wakame K, Igarashi Y, Wang S, Matsuzaki S.
Mushroom extracts are known to have immunomodulating and antitumor effects in humans as well as in animals. In the present study Active Hexose Correlated Compound(AHCC), an extract obtained from several kinds of basidiomycetes was examined for its suppressive effect on thymocyte apoptosis induced by dexamethasone.
Thymic apoptosis was evaluated by gel electrophoresis and by flow cytometry at 3 h after injection of dexamethasone to rats.
When given to rats at 4 % concentration in drinking water for more than 4 days, AHCC suppressed the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the thymus induced by dexamethasone. Flow cytometry also revealed that thymic apoptosis induced by dexamethasone was prevented by pretreatment with AHCC. Dexamethasone increased the caspase 3-like activity within 3 h after its treatment and AHCC pretreatment suppressed the increased enzyme activity only slightly. No apparent increase in serum levels of melatonin and interleukin 1beta was observed after AHCC treatment.
These results suggest that AHCC exhibits immuno-modulating effects at least partially by regulating thymic apoptosis.
Anticancer Drugs. 1998 Apr;9(4):343-50.
Combination therapy of active hexose correlated compound plus UFT significantly reduces the metastasis of rat mammary adenocarcinoma.
Matsushita K1, Kuramitsu Y, Ohiro Y, Obara M, Kobayashi M, Li YQ, Hosokawa M.
Synergistic effects of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) extracted from mushroom on the treatment with UFT against mammary adenocarcinoma, SST-2 cells, in congenitally T cell-depressed spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were observed. AHCC plus UFT had slight but significant effects on the growth of primary tumors. Pulmonary metastases were not inhibited by the treatment with AHCC plus UFT, whereas metastases to axillary lymph nodes (LN) were obviously inhibited. Combination of AHCC plus UFT showed similar synergistic anti-metastatic effects in SHR rats with accelerated pulmonary metastases following the surgical removal of the primary tumors. In vitro studies demonstrated that AHCC plus UFT enhanced the NK cell activity in tumor-bearing rats, whereas UFT alone depressed the NK cell activity. AHCC plus UFT also enhanced the NO production and cytotoxicity of peritoneal macrophages. In addition, AHCC restored the suppressed mRNA expression of interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced by the chemotherapy. Taken together, the combination of AHCC plus UFT brought about good therapeutic effects not only on primary tumor growth but also on reducing metastasis and these effects were mediated by host immunity which was restored or activated by AHCC. AHCC may be a good candidate for a biological response modifier.
Studies conducted in cell lines
Anticancer Res. 2018 Nov;38(11):6107-6111. doi: 10.21873/anticanres.12961.
CUB Domain-containing Protein 1 (CDCP1) Is Down-regulated by Active Hexose-correlated Compound in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells.
Kuhara K1,2, Tokuda K3, Kitagawa T4, Baron B5, Tokunaga M4, Harada K6, Terasaki M2, Uehara O2, Ohta T7, Takai R7, Hamada JI2, Kobayashi M2, Shimo T1, Nagayasu H1, Kuramitsu Y8.
We have previously reported that treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with active hexose-correlated compound (AHCC), an extract of a basidiomycete mushroom, decreases the levels of tumor-associated proteins including heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27), heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2). The transmembrane glycoprotein, CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) has been reported to be up-regulated in various cancers, and be associated with invasion and metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of AHCC on the expression of CDCP1 in KLM1-R cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells (KLM1-R) were treated with AHCC (10 mg/ml) for 48 h. Western blot analysis of cell extracts with anti-CDCP1 or anti-actin antibodies was performed to assess the expression of CDCP1.
Expression of CDCP1 was reduced by AHCC treatment of KLM1-R cells, whereas expression of actin was not affected. The ratio of intensities of CDCP1/actin in AHCC-treated KLM1-R cells was significantly suppressed (p<0.05) compared to untreated cells.
AHCC down-regulated CDCP1 expression and inhibited the malignant progression of pancreatic cancer cells.
Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS: AHCC; CDCP1; metastasis; pancreatic cancer
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Nutr Cancer. 2018 Jan;70(1):109-115. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2018.1380203. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) Inhibits the Proliferation of Ovarian Cancer Cells by Suppressing Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Activation.
Choi JY1, Lee S1, Yun SM1, Suh DH1, Kim K1, No JH1, Jeong EH2, Kim YB1.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiproliferative effect of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), derived from basidiomycete mushroom culture, on ovarian cancer cell lines. An in vitro growth inhibition assay was performed using AHCC in ovarian cancer cell lines. Western blotting was performed to investigate the mechanism of the observed antiproliferative effect of AHCC. We identified that ovarian cancer cell viability was significantly reduced through treatment with AHCC compared to that in the control. AHCC inhibited constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation in ovarian cancer cell lines. In contrast, treatment with pervanadate, a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, reversed AHCC-induced STAT3 suppression. AHCC treatment induced the expression of SHP-1, a protein tyrosine phosphatase, and suppressed the expression of cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, survivin, and VEGF, which are STAT3-regulated gene products that are associated with cell proliferation or apoptosis. These results suggest that AHCC has an antiproliferative effect on ovarian cancer cell lines, via STAT3 phosphorylation; thus, this compound has the potential to be a complementary and alternative anticancer therapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2017 Oct 3;18(10):765-774. doi: 10.1080/15384047.2017.1373211. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
MicroRNA signature in the chemoprevention of functionally-enriched stem and progenitor pools (FESPP) by Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC).
Graham ÉA1, Mallet JF2, Jambi M2, Nishioka H3, Homma K3, Matar C1,2.
Many breast cancer patients use natural compounds in their battle against breast cancer. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC®) is a cultured mushroom mycelium extract shown to favorably modulate the immune system and alleviate cancer burden. Cancer Stem cells (CSCs) are a subset of highly tumorigenic cancer cells that are thought to be responsible for recurrence. CSCs can be epigenetically regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). We hypothesized that AHCC may influence CSCs by modulating tumor-suppressor or oncogenic miRNAs.
Functionally-enriched stem and progenitor pools (FESPP) were isolated in the form of mammospheres from MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and 4T1 cells, exposed to AHCC in both regular and primary culture from Balb/c mice, and analyzed by visual counting and flow cytometry. Cell motility was also observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Profiling and RT-qPCR were performed to determine AHCC influence on miRNAs in MDA-MB-231 mammospheres. Additionally, Balb/c mice were orally gavaged with AHCC, and tumor growth parameters and miR-335 expression were analyzed. MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with miR-335 and analyzed by western blot.
We demonstrated that AHCC reduced mammosphere growth in three cell lines and in primary culture, prevented cell migration, and upregulated miR-335 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells and mouse tumor samples. Among the differentially regulated miRNAs in CSCs, we focused on tumor suppressor miR-335, known to target extracellular matrix protein Tenascin C (TNC). TNC is involved in CSC immune evasion pathways. In MDA-MB-231, inhibition of miR-335 increased TNC protein expression.
These results support that AHCC limits FESPP growth, partly by targeting miRNA pathways.
KEYWORDS: AHCC; Tenascin C; breast cancer; cancer stem cell; microRNA
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Anticancer Res. 2015 Nov;35(11):6063-7.
Active Hexose-correlated Compound Down-regulates Heat Shock Factor 1, a Transcription Factor for HSP27, in Gemcitabine-resistant Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells.
Tokunaga M1, Baron B1, Kitagawa T1, Tokuda K1, Kuramitsu Y2.
Active hexose-correlated compound (AHCC) is an extract of a basidiomycete mushroom that enhances the therapeutic effects and reduces the side-effects of chemotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated that heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) was involved in gemcitabine-resistance of pancreatic cancer cells and it was down-regulated by AHCC-treatment. However, how AHCC down-regulated HSP27 is unknown. In the present study, we focused on two transcription factors reported to induce HSP27, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and investigated the effect of AHCC on their expression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
KLM1-R cells were treated with AHCC and the protein expression of HSF1 and HMGB1 were analyzed by western blotting.
The protein expression of HSF1 in KLM1-R was down-regulated by AHCC treatment. On the other hand, the protein expression of HMGB1 was not reduced in KLM1-R cells after AHCC treatment.
The possibility that AHCC down-regulated HSP27 through down-regulation of the HSF1, was herein shown.
Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS: AHCC; HMGB1; HSF1; HSP27; gemcitabine; pancreatic cancer
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:508746. doi: 10.1155/2015/508746. Epub 2015 Dec 15.
AHCC Activation and Selection of Human Lymphocytes via Genotypic and Phenotypic Changes to an Adherent Cell Type: A Possible Novel Mechanism of T Cell Activation.
Olamigoke L1, Mansoor E1, Mann V1, Ellis I1, Okoro E1, Wakame K2, Fuji H3, Kulkarni A4, Francoise Doursout M4, Sundaresan A5.
Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is a fermented mushroom extract and immune supplement that has been used to treat a wide range of health conditions. It helps in augmentation of the natural immune response and affects immune cell activation and outcomes. The goal of this project was to study and understand the role and mechanisms of AHCC supplementation in the prevention of immunosuppression through T cell activation. The method described here involves "in vitro" culturing of lymphocytes, exposing them to different concentrations of AHCC (0 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, 250 μg/mL, and 500 μg/mL) at 0 hours. Interestingly, clumping and aggregation of the cells were seen between 24 and 72 hours of incubation. The cells lay down extracellular matrix, which become adherent, and phenotypical changes from small rounded lymphocytes to large macrophage-like, spindle shaped, elongated, fibroblast-like cells even beyond 360 hours were observed. These are probably translated from genotypic changes in the cells since the cells propagate for at least 3 to 6 generations (present observations). RNA isolated was subjected to gene array analysis. We hypothesize that cell adhesion is an activation and survival pathway in lymphocytes and this could be the mechanism of AHCC activation in human lymphocytes.
Anticancer Res. 2014 Sep;34(9):4807-11.
Active hexose-correlated compound down-regulates sex-determining region Y-box 2 of pancreatic cancer cells.
Nawata J1, Kuramitsu Y2, Wang Y1, Kitagawa T1, Tokuda K1, Baron B1, Akada J1, Suenaga S3, Kaino S4, Maehara S5, Maehara Y5, Sakaida I4, Nakamura K6.
Active hexose-correlated compound (AHCC) is an extract of basidiomycete mushroom. It has been used as health food due to its efficacy of enhancing antitumor effects and reducing adverse effects of chemotherapy. Our previous research showed that AHCC down-regulated heat-shock protein (HSP)-27 and exhibited cytotoxic effects against gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is reported to be up-regulated in other kinds of cancer cells and involved in carcinogenesis and malignancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AHCC on protein expression of SOX2 in the gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell line KLM1-R.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
AHCC was applied to KLM1-R cells and expression of SOX2 was analyzed by western blotting.
AHCC down-regulated SOX2 in KLM1-R cells. Nanog and Oct4, co-workers of SOX2 in maintaining pluripotency, did not exhibit any significant change in protein expression.
We showed the potential of AHCC to be a candidate for combinatorial therapy in anticancer drug regimens. This result suggests that the target of AHCC in expressing therapeutic efficacy was not the pluripotent cells such as cancer stem cells (CSCs) but SOX2-specific.
Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS: AHCC; SOX2; gemcitabine; heat-shock protein-27; pancreatic cancer
Nitric Oxide. 2014 Aug 31;40:75-86. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2014.05.007. Epub 2014 May 27.
Adenosine, a hepato-protective component in active hexose correlated compound: its identification and iNOS suppression mechanism.
Tanaka Y1, Ohashi S2, Ohtsuki A2, Kiyono T2, Park EY2, Nakamura Y2, Sato K2, Oishi M1, Miki H1, Tokuhara K1, Matsui K1, Kaibori M1, Nishizawa M3, Okumura T4, Kwon AH1.
Supplementation of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) improved the prognosis of postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Excess production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is an inflammatory biomarker in liver injury. AHCC suppressed iNOS induction in hepatocytes, suggesting that AHCC has a potential liver-protective effect. However, the active component in AHCC responsible for NO suppressive activities has not been identified. The objective of this study was to identify this NO suppressive component and to investigate its mechanisms of action. AHCC was subjected to fractionation by cation exchanger, size exclusion chromatography, and normal- and reversed-phase HPLC. Aliquots of the fractions were added to primary cultured rat hepatocytes stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β, and NO production was assayed. By activity-guided fractionation and electron spray ionization mass spectrometry analysis, adenosine was identified as one of the NO suppressive components in AHCC. Adenosine inhibited NO production, and reduced the expression of iNOS protein and mRNA. It had no effects on IκB degradation, but it inhibited NF-κB activation. Adenosine also inhibited the upregulation of type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI). Experiments with iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs revealed that adenosine decreased the levels of iNOS mRNA at the promoter transactivation and mRNA stabilization steps. Adenosine decreased the expression of the iNOS gene antisense transcript, which is involved in iNOS mRNA stability. Adenosine in AHCC suppressed iNOS induction by blocking NF-κB activation and the upregulation of the IL-1RI pathways, resulting in the inhibition of NO production.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS: Active hexose correlated compound; Adenosine; Antisense transcript; Inducible nitric oxide synthase; Purification of nitric oxide suppressive component
Anticancer Res. 2014 Jan;34(1):141-6.
Active hexose-correlated compound down-regulates HSP27 of pancreatic cancer cells, and helps the cytotoxic effect of gemcitabine.
Suenaga S1, Kuramitsu Y, Kaino S, Maehara S, Maehara Y, Sakaida I, Nakamura K.
Active hexose-correlated compound (AHCC), an extract of basidiomycete mushroom, is used as health food to enhance the therapeutic effects and reduce the adverse effects of chemotherapy. Our previous proteomic analysis revealed that up-regulation of heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) was responsible for gemcitabine resistance of pancreatic cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of AHCC on the expression of HSP27 and the effect of combinatorial treatment of AHCC and gemcitabine on the gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell line KLM1-R.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
KLM1-R cells were treated with AHCC, and the expression of HSP27 as well as the cytotoxic effects of combinatorial treatment of AHCC and gemcitabine were investigated with western blotting and MTS assay, respectively.
AHCC down-regulated HSP27 and exhibited a cytotoxic effect on KLM1-R cells. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effect of the combinatorial treatment of AHCC and gemcitabine was synergistic.
This study supports the potential therapeutic benefits of combinatorial treatment of AHCC and gemcitabine for patients with pancreatic cancer.
KEYWORDS: Active hexose-correlated compound; gemcitabine; heat-shock protein 27; pancreatic cancer
Life Sci. 2013 Dec 18;93(25-26):994-1003. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2013.10.027. Epub 2013 Nov 6.
Disruption of endothelial adherens junction by invasive breast cancer cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species and is attenuated by AHCC.
Haidari M1, Zhang W, Wakame K.
The effect of antioxidants on treatment of cancer is still controversial. Previously, we demonstrated that interaction of breast cancer cells with endothelial cells leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and disruption of endothelial adherens junction (EAJ). The molecular mechanism underlying the anti-metastatic effects of mushroom-derived active hexode correlated compound (AHCC) remains elusive.
Several cellular and biochemical techniques were used to determine the contribution of oxidative stress in the disruption of EAJ and to test this hypothesis that AHCC inhibits the breast cancer cell-induced disruption of EAJ.
Interaction of breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) leads to an increase in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment of HUVECs with H2O2 or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) led to tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin, dissociation of β-catenin from VE-cadherin complex and increased transendothelial migration (TEM) of MDA-MB-231 cells. Induction of VE-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation by PMA or by interaction of MDA-MB-231 cells with HUVECs was mediated by HRas and protein kinase C-α signaling pathways. Disruption of EAJ and phosphorylation of VE-cadherin induced by interaction of MDA-MB-231 cells with HUVECs were attenuated when HUVECs were pretreated with an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or AHCC. AHCC inhibited TEM of MDA-MB-231 cells and generation of ROS induced by interaction of MDA-MB-231 cells with HUVECs.
Our studies suggest that ROS contributes to disruption of EAJ induced by interaction of MDA-MB-231 cells with HUVECs and AHCC attenuates this alteration.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
KEYWORDS: Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC); Adherens junction; Breast cancer cells; Reactive oxygen species; VE-cadherin
Food Chem. 2013 Feb 15;136(3-4):1288-95. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.09.039. Epub 2012 Sep 23.
The nutritional supplement Active Hexose Correlated Compound(AHCC) has direct immunomodulatory actions on intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages involving TLR/MyD88 and NF-κB/MAPK activation.
Daddaoua A1, Martínez-Plata E, Ortega-González M, Ocón B, Aranda CJ, Zarzuelo A, Suárez MD, de Medina FS, Martínez-Augustin O.
Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is an immunostimulatory nutritional supplement. AHCC effects and mechanism of action on intestinal epithelial cells or monocytes are poorly described. AHCC was added to the culture medium of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC18 and HT29 cells) and monocytes (THP-1 cells) and assessed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by ELISA. Inhibitors of NFκB and MAPKs were used to study signal transduction pathways while TLR4 and MyD88 were silenced in IEC18 cells using shRNA. It was found that AHCC induced GROα and MCP1 secretion in IEC18 and IL-8 in HT29 cells. These effects depended on NFκB activation, and partly on MAPKs activation and on the presence of MyD88 and TLR4. In THP-1 cells AHCC evoked IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α secretion. The induction of IL-8 depended on JNK and NFκB activation. Therefore, AHCC exerts immunostimulatory effects on intestinal epithelial cells and monocytes involving TLR4/MyD88 and NFκB/MAPK signal transduction pathways.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cell Immunol. 2012 Jan-Feb;275(1-2):19-23. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2012.04.001. Epub 2012 Apr 6.
Active Hexose Correlated Compound promotes T helper (Th) 17 and 1 cell responses via inducing IL-1β production from monocytes in humans.
Lee WW1, Lee N, Fujii H, Kang I.
The differentiation of T helper (Th) cells is critically dependent on cytokine milieu. The innate immune monocytes produce IL-1β which can affect the development of Th17 and Th1 cells that predominantly produce IL-17 and IFN-γ, respectively. Oligosaccharides from microorganisms, crops and mushrooms can stimulate innate immune cells. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) that contains a large amount of oligosaccharides is a natural extract prepared from the mycelium of the edible Basidiomycete fungus. This compound is reported to modulate immune responses against pathogens although the mechanisms for this effect are largely unknown. Here we show that AHCC could induce high levels of IL-1β production from human monocytes. Furthermore, AHCC-treated monocytes increased the production of IL-17 and IFN-γ from autologous CD4(+) T cells, which was blocked by adding IL-1 receptor antagonist. These finding provide new insight into how food supplements like AHCC could enhance human immunity by modulating monocytes and Th cells.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eur Surg Res. 2011;47(4):274-83. doi: 10.1159/000333833. Epub 2011 Nov 10.
Active hexose correlated compound inhibits the expression of proinflammatory biomarker iNOS in hepatocytes.
Matsui K1, Ozaki T, Oishi M, Tanaka Y, Kaibori M, Nishizawa M, Okumura T, Kwon AH.
Excess production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been implicated as proinflammatory biomarker in liver injury. The application of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) as a functional food in complementary and alternative medicine has increased. The possibility that AHCC might inhibit iNOS induction was investigated as a potential liver-protective effect.
Hepatocytes were isolated from rats by collagenase perfusion and cultured. Primary cultured hepatocytes were treated with interleukin-1β in the presence or absence of AHCC-sugar fraction (AHCC-SF).
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:
AHCC-SF inhibited the production of NO and reduced expressions of iNOS mRNA and its protein. AHCC-SF had no effects on either IκB degradation or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. In contrast, AHCC-SF inhibited the upregulation of type I interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1RI) through the inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Transfection experiments with iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs revealed that AHCC-SF reduced the levels of iNOS mRNA at both promoter transactivation and mRNA stabilization steps. AHCC-SF inhibited the expression of iNOS gene antisense transcript, which is involved in iNOS mRNA stabilization. These findings demonstrate that AHCC-SF suppresses iNOS gene expression through a IκB/NF-κB-independent but Akt/IL-1RI-dependent pathway, resulting in the reduction of NO production. AHCC-SF may have therapeutic potential for various liver injuries.
Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
J Soc Integr Oncol. 2008 Summer;6(3):105-9.
Evaluation of active hexose correlated compound hepatic metabolism and potential for drug interactions with chemotherapy agents.
Mach CM1, Fugii H, Wakame K, Smith J.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), a Basidiomycotina extract, is a well-tolerated nutritional supplement with no reported adverse effects. It has demonstrated potential antitumor activity and immune modulator activity. However, there is no current information regarding its metabolism and the potential for drug-drug interactions for AHCC in combination with chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to characterize AHCC hepatic metabolism, specifically involving the potential for drug interactions with selected chemotherapy agents. High-throughput cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) metabolism inhibition experiments were conducted in vitro evaluating CYP450 3A4, 2C8, 2C9, and 2D6 followed by an evaluation of AHCC as a substrate of these same isoenzymes. An ex vivo model of cryopreserved human hepatocytes was used to evaluate the CYP450 metabolism induction potential of AHCC for CYP450 3A4, 2C8/2C9, and 2D6. No inhibition of CYP450 activity was observed in presence of AHCC; however, AHCC was a substrate of CYP450 2D6. The CYP450 induction metabolism assays indicate that AHCC is an inducer of CYP450 2D6. AHCC does have the potential for drug-drug interactions involving CYP450 2D6, such as doxorubicin or ondansetron; however, the overall data suggest that AHCC would be safe to administer with most other chemotherapy agents that are not metabolized via the CYP450 2D6 pathway.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2007 Sep-Oct;31(5):373-80; discussion 380-1.
Effect of active hexose correlated compound on the production of nitric oxide in hepatocytes.
Matsui K1, Kawaguchi Y, Ozaki T, Tokuhara K, Tanaka H, Kaibori M, Matsui Y, Kamiyama Y, Wakame K, Miura T, Nishizawa M, Okumura T.
Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is a "complex compound" containing polysaccharides. AHCC has been reported to improve the prognosis of postoperative hepatocellular carcinoma patients. However, the molecular mechanism of this improvement is not fully understood. In the diseased liver, nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is considered to be a causal factor for various hepatopathies. In this study, the possibility of AHCC regulation of NO production by iNOS was pursued as a potential liver-protecting mechanism.
Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in the presence or absence of AHCC. NO production, iNOS induction, and iNOS signal were analyzed.
IL-1beta stimulated iNOS induction through the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB), leading to NO production. The addition of AHCC inhibited NO production, showing >80% inhibition at 8 mg/mL. AHCC also decreased the levels of iNOS protein and mRNA. However, AHCC influenced neither the degradation of inhibitory protein kappaB (IkappaB) nor the activation of NFkappaB stimulated by IL-1beta. Transfection experiments with an iNOS promoter-luciferase construct (iNOS-Luc) revealed that AHCC had no effect on the transactivation activity of the iNOS promoter. By contrast, AHCC inhibited the activity of iNOS-Luc containing a 3'untranslated region (UTR) with adenosine and uridine (AU)-rich elements, which shows the stabilizing activity of iNOS mRNA.
Results indicated that AHCC inhibits the induction of iNOS at the level of transcription, causing a decrease in NO production in hepatocytes. AHCC seems to decrease the levels of iNOS mRNA by reducing mRNA stabilization rather than inhibiting its synthesis.